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      Strengthening Primary Health-Care Services to Help Prevent and Control Long-Term (Chronic) Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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          Abstract

          The prevalence of long-term (chronic) non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing globally due to an ageing global population, urbanization, changes in lifestyles, and inequitable access to healthcare. Although previously more common in high- and upper-middle-income countries, lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are more affected, with NCDs in LMICs currently accounting for 85–90% of premature deaths among 30–69 years old. NCDs have both high morbidity and mortality and high treatment costs, not only for the diseases themselves but also for their complications. Primary health care (PHC) services are a vital component in the prevention and control of long-term NCDs, particularly in LMICs, where the health infrastructure and hospital services may be under strain. Drawing from published studies, this review analyses how PHC services can be utilized and strengthened to help prevent and control long-term NCDs in LMICs. The review finds that a PHC service approach, which deals with health in a comprehensive way, including the promotion, prevention, and control of diseases, can be useful in both high and low resource settings. Further, a PHC based approach also provides opportunities for communities to better access appropriate healthcare, which ensures more significant equity, efficiency, effectiveness, safety, and timeliness, empowers service users, and helps healthcare providers to achieve better health outcomes at lower costs.

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          Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990–2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study

          Summary Background 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016. Methods Using all available data sources, the India State-level Disease Burden Initiative estimated burden (metrics were deaths, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs], prevalence, incidence, and life expectancy) from 333 disease conditions and injuries and 84 risk factors for each state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of GBD 2016. We divided the states of India into four epidemiological transition level (ETL) groups on the basis of the ratio of DALYs from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) to those from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries combined in 2016. We assessed variations in the burden of diseases and risk factors between ETL state groups and between states to inform a more specific health-system response in the states and for India as a whole. Findings DALYs due to NCDs and injuries exceeded those due to CMNNDs in 2003 for India, but this transition had a range of 24 years for the four ETL state groups. The age-standardised DALY rate dropped by 36·2% in India from 1990 to 2016. The numbers of DALYs and DALY rates dropped substantially for most CMNNDs between 1990 and 2016 across all ETL groups, but rates of reduction for CMNNDs were slowest in the low ETL state group. By contrast, numbers of DALYs increased substantially for NCDs in all ETL state groups, and increased significantly for injuries in all ETL state groups except the highest. The all-age prevalence of most leading NCDs increased substantially in India from 1990 to 2016, and a modest decrease was recorded in the age-standardised NCD DALY rates. The major risk factors for NCDs, including high systolic blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, high total cholesterol, and high body-mass index, increased from 1990 to 2016, with generally higher levels in higher ETL states; ambient air pollution also increased and was highest in the low ETL group. The incidence rate of the leading causes of injuries also increased from 1990 to 2016. The five leading individual causes of DALYs in India in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, and cerebrovascular disease; and the five leading risk factors for DALYs in 2016 were child and maternal malnutrition, air pollution, dietary risks, high systolic blood pressure, and high fasting plasma glucose. Behind these broad trends many variations existed between the ETL state groups and between states within the ETL groups. Of the ten leading causes of disease burden in India in 2016, five causes had at least a five-times difference between the highest and lowest state-specific DALY rates for individual causes. Interpretation Per capita disease burden measured as DALY rate has dropped by about a third in India over the past 26 years. However, the magnitude and causes of disease burden and the risk factors vary greatly between the states. The change to dominance of NCDs and injuries over CMNNDs occurred about a quarter century apart in the four ETL state groups. Nevertheless, the burden of some of the leading CMNNDs continues to be very high, especially in the lowest ETL states. This comprehensive mapping of inequalities in disease burden and its causes across the states of India can be a crucial input for more specific health planning for each state as is envisioned by the Government of India's premier think tank, the National Institution for Transforming India, and the National Health Policy 2017. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; and World Bank
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            The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

            Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive) actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.
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              The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2016

              Summary Background The burden of diabetes is increasing rapidly in India but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends is not available for every state of India. We present a comprehensive analysis of the time trends and heterogeneity in the distribution of diabetes burden across all states of India between 1990 and 2016. Methods We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of diabetes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016 using all available data sources that could be accessed as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, and assessed heterogeneity across the states. The states were placed in four groups based on epidemiological transition level (ETL), defined on the basis of the ratio of DALYs from communicable diseases to those from non-communicable diseases and injuries combined, with a low ratio denoting high ETL and vice versa. We assessed the contribution of risk factors to diabetes DALYs and the relation of overweight (body-mass index 25 kg/m2 or more) with diabetes prevalence. We calculated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for the point estimates. Findings The number of people with diabetes in India increased from 26·0 million (95% UI 23·4–28·6) in 1990 to 65·0 million (58·7–71·1) in 2016. The prevalence of diabetes in adults aged 20 years or older in India increased from 5·5% (4·9–6·1) in 1990 to 7·7% (6·9–8·4) in 2016. The prevalence in 2016 was highest in Tamil Nadu and Kerala (high ETL) and Delhi (higher-middle ETL), followed by Punjab and Goa (high ETL) and Karnataka (higher-middle ETL). The age-standardised DALY rate for diabetes increased in India by 39·6% (32·1–46·7) from 1990 to 2016, which was the highest increase among major non-communicable diseases. The age-standardised diabetes prevalence and DALYs increased in every state, with the percentage increase among the highest in several states in the low and lower-middle ETL state groups. The most important risk factor for diabetes in India was overweight to which 36·0% (22·6–49·2) of the diabetes DALYs in 2016 could be attributed. The prevalence of overweight in adults in India increased from 9·0% (8·7–9·3) in 1990 to 20·4% (19·9–20·8) in 2016; this prevalence increased in every state of the country. For every 100 overweight adults aged 20 years or older in India, there were 38 adults (34–42) with diabetes, compared with the global average of 19 adults (17–21) in 2016. Interpretation The increase in health loss from diabetes since 1990 in India is the highest among major non-communicable diseases. With this increase observed in every state of the country, and the relative rate of increase highest in several less developed low ETL states, policy action that takes these state-level differences into account is needed urgently to control this potentially explosive public health situation. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; and Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Risk Manag Healthc Policy
                Risk Manag Healthc Policy
                RMHP
                rmhp
                Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
                Dove
                1179-1594
                18 May 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 409-426
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, (National Defence University of Malaysia) , Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
                [2 ]UChicago Research Bangladesh , Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
                [3 ]Department of Physical Rehabilitation Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia , Kuantan, 25200, Malaysia
                [4 ]Swansea University School of Medicine, Swansea University , Swansea, Wales SA2 8PP, UK
                [5 ]Unit of Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, (National Defence University of Malaysia) , Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
                [6 ]School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus , Mount Hope, Trinidad & Tobago
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mainul Haque Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, (National Defence University of Malaysia) , Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur57000, MalaysiaTel +60 1092 65543 Email runurono@gmail.com
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6124-7993
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5838-6554
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9046-6183
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8949-5067
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4323-7617
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2537-8889
                Article
                239074
                10.2147/RMHP.S239074
                7244358
                32547272
                5732524a-77f2-457a-994a-169cfaef7644
                © 2020 Haque et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 18 November 2019
                : 24 March 2020
                Page count
                References: 238, Pages: 18
                Funding
                This review manuscript received no financial support.
                Categories
                Review

                Social policy & Welfare
                primary health care,phc,prevention,control,chronic,long-term conditions,non-communicable diseases,ncds,lower-middle-income countries,lmics

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