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      Noninvasive Transcutaneous Access Flow Measurement before and after Hemodialysis: Impact of Hematocrit and Blood Pressure

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: The dialysis outcome is strongly affected by the function of the vascular access. It has been suggested that access clotting may be related to increased hematocrit (Hct) or excessive ultrafiltration during dialysis. The present study was designed to evaluate the changes of vascular access flow during hemodialysis in 18 end-stage renal disease patients with native arteriovenous fistulas and the possible correlations with Hct and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods: We utilized a noninvasive vascular access flow measurement technique, based on a transcutaneous optical sensor, to evaluate the flow in the access before and after a single hemodialysis session. At the beginning and at the end of the session, the blood flow was measured noninvasively, placing the sensor approximately 2 in from the point of insertion of the arterial needle. At the same time, Hct and MAP were measured directly. All patients were on hemodialysis for more than 3 months. Results: There was a significant increase in Hct, likely due to ultrafiltration and consequent hemoconcentration, from the beginning to the end of the dialysis session. In detail, the Hct increased from 32.6 ± 1.9 to 35.4 ± 1.8% (p < 0.001), while the MAP did not present significant variations. The blood flow did not show significant variations, increasing from 780 ± 312 to 919 ± 411 ml/min after the session. Because of the stability of the MAP, we could dissociate the effects of the Hct from those of the MAP on blood flow variations. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the blood flow in native fistulas is not affected by the acute rise in Hct due to ultrafiltration during hemodialysis. The transcutaneous access flow measurement technique appears to be reliable and accurate, and it could represent an important diagnostic tool.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Predicting Hemodialysis Access Failure with Color Flow Doppler Ultrasound

          Color flow doppler ultrasound examination of the hemodialysis access was conducted in 2,792 hemodialysis patients to evaluate its value in predicting hemodialysis access failure. After baseline assessment of vascular access function with clinical and laboratory tests including color flow doppler evaluation these patients were followed for a minimal of 6 months or until graft failure occurred (defined as surgery or angioplasty intervention, or graft loss). The patient demographics and vascular accesses were typical of a standard hemodialysis patient population. On the day of the color flow doppler examination systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hematocrit, urea reduction ratio, dialysis blood flow, venous line pressure at a dialysis blood flow of 250 ml/min, and access recirculation rate were measured. At the conclusion of the study 23.5% of the patients had access failure. Case mix predictors for access failure were determined using the Cox Model. Case mix predictors of access failure were race, non-white was higher than white (p < 0.005), younger accesses had a higher risk than older accesses (p < 0.025), accesses with prior thrombosis had a higher risk of failure (p = 0.042), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts had a higher risk than native vein fistulae (p < 0.05), loop PTFE grafts had a higher risk than straight PTFE grafts (p < 0.025), and upper arm accesses had a higher risk than forearm accesses (p = 0.033). Most significant, however, was decreased access blood flow as measured by color flow doppler (p < 0.0001). The relative risk of graft failure increased 40% when the blood flow in the graft decreased to less than 500 ml/min and the relative risk doubled when the blood flow was less than 300 ml/min. This study has shown that color flow doppler evaluation, quantifying blood flow in a prosthetic graft, can identify those grafts at risk for failure. In contrast, color doppler volume flow in native AV fistulae could not predict fistula survival. This technique is noninvasive, painless, portable, and reproducible. We believe that preemptory repair of an anatomical abnormality in vascular access grafts with decreased blood flow may decrease patient inconvenience, associated morbidity, and associated costs.
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            Erythropoietin therapy in chronic uremia: the impact of normalization of hematocrit

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              BPU
              Blood Purif
              10.1159/issn.0253-5068
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              0253-5068
              1421-9735
              2002
              2002
              12 August 2002
              : 20
              : 4
              : 376-379
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; bRenal Research Institute, New York, N.Y., USA
              Article
              63107 Blood Purif 2002;20:376–379
              10.1159/000063107
              12169848
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, References: 15, Pages: 4
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/63107
              Categories
              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Blood flow, Hematocrit, Vascular access, Hemodialysis

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