14
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Skin and skin structure infections: treatment with newer generation fluoroquinolones

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) are an emerging issue in healthcare. They are responsible for increasing heathcare utilization, both in hospitalizations and intravenous antibiotic use. SSSI are caused by an evolving variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. In combination with mounting resistance patterns, this diverse range of bacteria mandate empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage. Historically, cephalosporins and penicillins have been the mainstay of treatment, but recent data suggest newer generation fluoroquinolones are being used with increasing frequency. In 2005, moxifloxacin joined gatifloxacin and levofloxacin as newer generation fluoroquionolones with Food and Drug Administration indications for SSSIs. Even within this group there exist subtle differences that impact optimal management. This paper offers the clinician a comparative review of the antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy data to support the appropriate use of fluoroquinolones in SSSIs.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 61

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Risk factors associated with nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection including previous use of antimicrobials.

            Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. To investigate an association between antimicrobial use and MRSA, a case control study of 121 patients infected with MRSA compared with 123 patients infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was carried out. Antimicrobial use was analysed by three different logistic regression models: all beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics grouped in classes and antimicrobial use in grammes. Patients infected with MRSA tended to have more co-morbidities, longer lengths of stay (LOS) and greater exposure to antibiotics than MSSA-infected patients. Multivariate analysis identified levofloxacin [odds ratio (OR) 8.01], macrolides (OR 4.06), previous hospitalization (OR 1.95), enteral feedings (OR 2.55), surgery (OR 2.24) and LOS before culture (OR 1.03) as independently associated with MRSA infection. All models were concordant with the exception of macrolides, which were not significant based on the number of grammes administered. There were no significant differences in the types of infection or the attributed mortality in either group. MRSA-infected patients had a significantly longer LOS before infection [18.8 +/- 18.2 compared with 8.4 +/- 6.9 (P < 0.001)] and a significantly longer post-diagnosis LOS [27.8 +/- 32.9 compared with 18.6 +/- 21 (P = 0.01)] than MSSA-infected patients.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Practical disk diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

              Resistance to macrolides in staphylococci may be due to active efflux (encoded by msrA) or ribosomal target modification (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B [MLSB] resistance; usually encoded by ermA or ermC). MLSB resistance is either constitutive or inducible following exposure to a macrolide. Induction tests utilize closely approximated erythromycin and clindamycin disks; the flattening of the clindamycin zone adjacent to the erythromycin disk indicates inducible MLSB resistance. The present study reassessed the reliability of placing erythromycin and clindamycin disks in adjacent positions (26 to 28 mm apart) in a standard disk dispenser, compared to distances of 15 or 20 mm. A group of 130 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 100 isolates of erythromycin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were examined by disk approximation; all CNS isolates and a subset of S. aureus isolates were examined by PCR for ermA, ermC, and msrA. Of 114 erythromycin-resistant S. aureus isolates, 39 demonstrated constitutive resistance to clindamycin, while 33 showed inducible resistance by disk approximation at all three distances. Only one isolate failed to clearly demonstrate induction at 26 mm. Of 82 erythromycin-resistant CNS isolates that contained ermA or ermC, 57 demonstrated constitutive clindamycin resistance, and 25 demonstrated inducible resistance, at 20 and 26 mm. None of the 42 S. aureus isolates or 18 CNS isolates containing only msrA and none of the erythromycin-susceptible isolates yielded positive disk approximation tests. Simple placement of erythromycin and clindamycin disks at a distance achieved with a standard disk dispenser allowed detection of 97% of S. aureus strains and 100% of CNS strains with inducible MLSB resistance in this study.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                June 2007
                June 2007
                : 3
                : 2
                : 309-317
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Orlando Regional Medical Center Orlando, Florida, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Orlando Regional Medical Center Orlando, Florida, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Philip Giordano 86 W. Underwood Street, Ste. 200, Orlando, Florida 32806 Tel +1 407 237 6329 Fax +1 407 370 5105 Email philip.giordano@ 123456orhs.org
                Article
                1936312
                18360639
                © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Reviews

                Comments

                Comment on this article