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      Effect of Short-term Erythropoietin Therapy on Insulin Resistance and Serum Levels of Leptin and Neuropeptide Y in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Introduction:

          Insulin resistance (IR) is a known complication of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). It may be an important therapeutic target in stages of chronic kidney disease.

          Aim:

          The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy on IR, serum leptin, and neuropeptide Y in ESKD patients on hemodialysis.

          Materials and Methods:

          Thirty ESKD patients were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. Erythropoietin (rHuEpo) group consisted of 15 patients (7 females, 8 males, mean age 47.8 ± 9.3 years) treated with rHuEpo therapy after each session of dialysis. No-rHuEpo group consisted of 15 patients (7 females, 8 males, mean age 45.5 ± 8.6 years) not treated with rHuEpo. In addition to, control group consisted of 15 healthy controls (6 females, 9 males, mean age 48.8 ± 11 years).

          Results:

          The mean fasting insulin (11 ± 4.2 mU/L) and homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) test (2.6 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in ESKD patients than control group (6.6 ± 1.4 mU/L and 1.5 ± 0.3, respectively). There were significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (5.6 ± 1%), fasting insulin level (9.3 ± 3.1 μU/mL), HOMA-IR (2.2 ± 0.7), and serum leptin levels (17.4 ± 8.7 ng/mL) also significant increase in neuropeptide Y levels (113 ± 9.9 pg/mL) after 3 months of rHuEpo therapy, in addition to further significantly decrease fasting insulin levels (7.1 ± 2.1 μU/mL) and HOMA-IR (1.7 ± 6) after 6 months in rHuEpo group. In contrast, there were significantly increases in HbA1c% (5.9 ± 0.5%) and leptin levels (42.3 ± 25.3 ng/mL) in No-rHuEpo group throughout the study.

          Conclusion:

          IR and hyperleptinemia are improved by recombinant human erythropoietin therapy.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Insulin resistance in uremia.

          Tissue sensitivity to insulin was examined with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique in 17 chronically uremic and 36 control subjects. The plasma insulin concentration was raised by approximately 100 microU/ml and the plasma glucose concentration was maintained at the basal level with a variable glucose infusion. Under these steady-state conditions of euglycemia, the glucose infusion rate is a measure of the amount of glucose taken up by the entire body. In uremic subjects insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was reduced by 47% compared with controls (3.71 +/- 0.20 vs. 7.38 +/- 0.26 mg/kg . min; P less than 0.001). Basal hepatic glucose production (measured with [3H]-3-glucose) was normal in uremic subjects (2.17 +/- 0.04 mg/kg . min) and suppressed normally by 94 +/- 2% following insulin administration. In six uremic and six control subjects, net splanchnic glucose balance was also measured directly by the hepatic venous catheterization technique. In the postabsorptive state splanchnic glucose production was similar in uremics (1.57 +/- 0.03 mg/kg . min) and controls (1.79 +/- 0.20 mg/kg . min). After 90 min of sustained hyperinsulinemia, splanchnic glucose balance reverted to a net uptake which was similar in uremics (0.42 +/- 0.11 mg/kg . min) and controls (0.53 +/- 0.12 mg/kg . min). In contrast, glucose uptake by the leg was reduced by 60% in the uremic group (21 +/- 1 vs. 52 +/- 8 mumol/min . kg of leg wt; P less than 0.005) and this decrease closely paralleled the decrease in total glucose metabolism by the entire body. These results indicate that: (a) suppression of hepatic glucose production by physiologic hyperinsulinemia is not impaired by uremia, (b) insulin-mediated glucose uptake by the liver is normal in uremic subjects, and (c) tissue insensitivity to insulin is the primary cause of insulin resistance in uremia.
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            Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are already present in patients with incipient renal disease.

            In uremic patients resistance to the action of insulin has been documented, but it is not known at what stage of renal disease it appears. We therefore examined 29 patients with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN) and 21 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in different stages of renal failure, and in addition, healthy age-matched subjects. Insulin sensitivity and other variables of glucose metabolism were assessed using a frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (minimal-model technique). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed in renal patients using the inulin-clearance technique. Mean insulin sensitivity index (SI), that is, insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in all patients combined than in matched healthy subjects (N = 16; 14 males, mean age 42 +/- 3 years; mean SI 8.6 +/- 0.8 min-1 uU/ml). The mean SI was not significantly different in patients with renal disease of immune (IgAGN) or non-immune (ADPKD) origin, and it was not correlated with GFR (r = 0.01, P < 0.52), intact PTH (r = -0.23, P < 0.11) or calcitriol concentration (r = -0.03, P < 0.82). Consequently, the mean SI was similar in renal patients with GFR within the normal range (N = 19; 17 males, mean age 41 +/- 2 years; mean GFR 119 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2; 5.1 +/- 0.7 min-1 uU/ml), in patients with mild to moderate renal failure (N = 16; 15 males, 46 +/- 3 years; 67 +/- 4 ml/min/1.73 m2; 5.1 +/- 0.7 min-1 microU/ml) and in patients with advanced renal failure (N = 15; 13 males, 46 +/- 3 years; 25 +/- 2 ml/min/1.73 m2; 4.7 +/- 0.6 min-1 uU/ml). Mean fasted plasma insulin concentration, the area under the curve for plasma insulin concentration (AUC) and total insulin delivery (TID) during the glucose tolerance test were significantly higher in patients than in healthy subjects, reflecting hyperinsulinemia in renal patients. Further, fasted plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.32, P < 0.009), AUC (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) and TID (r = -0.34, P < 0.004) in patients were significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (SI). The present data document that insulin resistance and concomitant hyperinsulinemia are present early in the course of renal disease, that is, even in patients with GFR within the normal range, irrespective of the type of renal disease. This observation may have potential implications with respect to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease.
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              Insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease.

              It has been reported that insulin resistance appears at an earlier stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few data are available concerning what factors of metabolic abnormalities, such as apolipoprotein (Apo) profile or acidosis, might be associated with insulin resistance in patients with CKD. We used the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp technique to examine insulin sensitivity in patients without diabetes (n = 29) with different stages of renal function. Results were compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 10) and related to various affecting variables. In healthy subjects, the glucose disposal rate (GDR) was 9.93 +/- 1.33 mg/kg/min. The GDR of patients with CKD (6.91 +/- 2.46 mg/kg/min) was significantly less than that of healthy subjects ( P < 0.01), which shows diminished insulin sensitivity in patients with CKD. There was a negative correlation between GDR and serum creatinine level ( r = -0.449; P < 0.05) and positive correlations between GDR and creatinine clearance ( r = 0.549; P < 0.01) and Apo A-1/B levels ( r = 0.396; P < 0.05). Of particular relevance is the observed close correlation between GDR and bicarbonate level, with an extremely high predictive value for degree of acidosis ( r = 0.611; P < 0.0005). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis selected bicarbonate (F = 13.28) and Apo A-1/B levels (F = 6.58) as independent contributing variables. We found that insulin resistance correlated linearly with decline in renal function. Independent variables related to insulin resistance were bicarbonate and Apo A-1/B levels in patients with CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                IJEM
                Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2230-8210
                2230-9500
                Sep-Oct 2017
                : 21
                : 5
                : 724-730
                Affiliations
                Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
                [1 ]Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ]Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Fayoym, Egypt
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Osama A. Khamis, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: okhamis2015@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJEM-21-724
                10.4103/ijem.IJEM_462_16
                5628544
                Copyright: © 2017 Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                hemodialysis, insulin resistance, leptin, neuropeptide y

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