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      Early structural and functional signature of 3-day human skeletal muscle disuse using the dry immersion model : Short-term muscle deconditioning

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          Most cited references 42

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          Percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in physiological and clinical research.

           J. Bergström (1975)
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            From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006).

            Bed rest studies of the past 20 years are reviewed. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight. As well as continuing to search for better understanding of the physiological changes induced, these studies focused mostly on identifying effective countermeasures with encouraging but limited success. HDBR is characterised by immobilization, inactivity, confinement and elimination of Gz gravitational stimuli, such as posture change and direction, which affect body sensors and responses. These induce upward fluid shift, unloading the body's upright weight, absence of work against gravity, reduced energy requirements and reduction in overall sensory stimulation. The upward fluid shift by acting on central volume receptors induces a 10-15% reduction in plasma volume which leads to a now well-documented set of cardiovascular changes including changes in cardiac performance and baroreflex sensitivity that are identical to those in space. Calcium excretion is increased from the beginning of bed rest leading to a sustained negative calcium balance. Calcium absorption is reduced. Body weight, muscle mass, muscle strength is reduced, as is the resistance of muscle to insulin. Bone density, stiffness of bones of the lower limbs and spinal cord and bone architecture are altered. Circadian rhythms may shift and are dampened. Ways to improve the process of evaluating countermeasures--exercise (aerobic, resistive, vibration), nutritional and pharmacological--are proposed. Artificial gravity requires systematic evaluation. This review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.
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              Prolonged space flight-induced alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres.

              The primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged space flight (180 days) on the structure and function of slow and fast fibres in human skeletal muscle. Biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of nine International Space Station crew members 45 days pre- and on landing day (R+0) post-flight. The main findings were that prolonged weightlessness produced substantial loss of fibre mass, force and power with the hierarchy of the effects being soleus type I > soleus type II > gastrocnemius type I > gastrocnemius type II. Structurally, the quantitatively most important adaptation was fibre atrophy, which averaged 20% in the soleus type I fibres (98 to 79 μm diameter). Atrophy was the main contributor to the loss of peak force (P(0)), which for the soleus type I fibre declined 35% from 0.86 to 0.56 mN. The percentage decrease in fibre diameter was correlated with the initial pre-flight fibre size (r = 0.87), inversely with the amount of treadmill running (r = 0.68), and was associated with an increase in thin filament density (r = 0.92). The latter correlated with reduced maximal velocity (V(0)) (r = 0.51), and is likely to have contributed to the 21 and 18% decline in V(0) in the soleus and gastrocnemius type I fibres. Peak power was depressed in all fibre types with the greatest loss (55%) in the soleus. An obvious conclusion is that the exercise countermeasures employed were incapable of providing the high intensity needed to adequately protect fibre and muscle mass, and that the crew's ability to perform strenuous exercise might be seriously compromised. Our results highlight the need to study new exercise programmes on the ISS that employ high resistance and contractions over a wide range of motion to mimic the range occurring in Earth's 1 g environment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Physiology
                J Physiol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00223751
                July 01 2017
                July 01 2017
                : 595
                : 13
                : 4301-4315
                Article
                10.1113/JP273895
                5491890
                28326563
                © 2017

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