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      Intestinal Obstruction in Early Neonatal Period: A 3-Year Review Of Admitted Cases from a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Failure to pass meconium by a full-term neonate within the first 24 hours should raise a suspicion of bowel obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine pattern of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of management of intestinal obstruction in the early neonatal period in the Neonatal Care Unit of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

          Methods

          Retrospective chart review of admitted cases from January 2011 to December 2013 was done. Data were entered into SPSS software version 20. Descriptive analysis of data were done at first; then cross tabulation of variables with chi-square tests were done

          Results

          Fifty-one (41 males and 10 females) cases of neonatal intestinal obstructions were described. ARM was the most common type of intestinal obstruction followed by intestinal atresia and Hirschsprung's disease.

          Delayed diagnosis of cases was observed in 72%. Associated congenital anomalies were documented in 13 % of the cases. Death occurred in 20% of the cases. One or another form of infection accounted for 90% of the deaths. Neonatal sepsis and being unfit for anesthesia were determinants of mortality with p-value <0.02 and < 0.0007 respectively.

          Conclusion

          Anorectal malformation is the commonest cause of early neonatal obstruction followed by small intestinal atresia and Hirschsprung's disease. Low number of associated anomalies has been reported. High rate of death due to preventable causes such as sepsis is observed. Delayed diagnosis of cases were also prevalent.

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          Most cited references23

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          Operative mangement of intestinal atresia and stenosis based on pathologic findings.

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            Associated malformations in patients with anorectal anomalies.

            Patients with congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) often have other associated congenital defects. The reported incidence and the types of associated malformations vary between different studies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalences at birth of associated malformations in patients of a geographically defined population with ARM which were collected between 1979 and 2003 in 334, 262 consecutive births. Of the 174 patients with ARM during the study period, 49.4% had associated malformations. Patients with associated malformations were further classified into groups with nonsyndromic multiple congenital anomalies; chromosomal abnormalities; nonchromosomal syndromes including Townes-Brocks, Walker-Warburg, Ivemark, Fetal alcohol, Klippel-Feil, Pallister-Hall, Facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, deletion 22q11.2; sequences, including OEIS, Pierre Robin and sirenomelia; and associations including VATER and MURCS. Malformations of the urogenital system (81.1%) and of the skeletal system (45.5%) were the most common other congenital anomalies occurring with ARM in multiply malformed patients without recognized entities, followed by malformations of the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, and the central nervous system. Weight, length, and head circumference of children with ARM and multiple associated malformations were lower than in controls, as was the weight of the placenta. Prenatal detection by fetal ultrasonographic examination was rarely made in isolated ARM. However, even in multiple associated malformations, prenatal detection by fetal ultrasonographic examination had a low sensitivity, 36%. In conclusion the overall prevalence of malformations, which was close to 1 in two infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of patients with ARM. A routine screening for other malformations may be considered in patients with ARM, and genetic counseling seems warranted in most of these complicated cases.
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              Analysis of 1,992 patients with anorectal malformations over the past two decades in Japan. Steering Committee of Japanese Study Group of Anorectal Anomalies.

              This report describes the results of a group study of the Japanese Study Group of Anorectal Anomolies (JSGA) to determine the relative incidence of specific types of anorectal anomaly in Japan, and includes discussion of rectourethral fistula regarding the relationship between the levels of the fistula and blind end of the rectum, low type deformity, rare types, and associated anomalies. A total of 1,992 patients (1,183 boys and 809 girls) registered from 1976 to 1995 were analyzed. High-type deformities accounted for 26.0% of cases, intermediate 10.7%, low 57.2%, miscellaneous 4.5% and unclassified 1.8%. The most frequent deformity was male anocutaneous fistula (n = 364), followed by male rectourethral fistula (n = 333), and female anovestibular fistula (n = 241). There were 42 rectovesical fistulas in boys and 93 rectocloacal fistulas in girls. Covered anus complete occurred at the same frequency (10.1% of low deformities) as covered anal stenosis. In rectourethral fistula, the blind end of the rectum lay at or above the level of the P-C line in 40.3% of cases, at or above the M line in 39.6% and at the vicinity of the I line in 20.2%, respectively. There was no parallel relationship between the site of the fistula opening and the level of the rectal pouch. The overall incidence of patients having one or more associated anomalies was 45.2%: 70.6% in high deformity, 60.7% in intermediate, and 31.3% in low. The rate of association of Down's syndrome with deformities without fistula (40.3%) was significantly higher than with deformities with fistula (0.3%). Rectovesical fistula and covered anus complete were not infrequent deformities in this series. We consider that at least 20% of rectourethral fistula should be categorized as intermediate or low deformity from the viewpoint of the position of the rectal pouch. A significant preponderance of Down's syndrome in the deformities without fistula suggests that further investigation of associated anomalies in comparision with other congenital diseases may provide insights into the pathogenesis of anorectal malformation in the field of molecular genetics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ethiop J Health Sci
                Ethiop J Health Sci
                Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
                Research and Publications Office of Jimma University (Jimma, Ethiopia )
                1029-1857
                2413-7170
                July 2017
                : 27
                : 4
                : 393-400
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Ayder Hospital, Pediatrics and Child Health Department, College of Health Sciences, Mekele University, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Depatment of Pediatrics and Child Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Funding: Nil

                Competing Interests: The authors declare that this manuscript was approved by all authors in its form and that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                jEJHS.v27.i4.pg393
                5615028
                57651007-7ffb-4bb5-bd30-a8d00bb81fb0
                Copyright © 2017 Stanley C.O.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Medicine
                neonatal intestinal obstruction,anorectal malformation,hirschsprung's disease
                Medicine
                neonatal intestinal obstruction, anorectal malformation, hirschsprung's disease

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