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      The immediate effects of kinesiology taping on cutaneous blood flow in healthy humans under resting conditions: A randomised controlled repeated-measures laboratory study

      1 , * , 2 , 1

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Background

          Kinesiology taping (KT) is used in musculoskeletal practice for preventive and rehabilitative purposes. It is claimed that KT improves blood flow in the microcirculation by creating skin convolutions and that this reduces swelling and facilitates healing of musculoskeletal injuries. There is a paucity of physiological studies evaluating the effect of KT on cutaneous blood microcirculation.

          Objectives

          The purpose of this parallel-group controlled laboratory repeated measures design study was to evaluate the effects of KT on cutaneous blood microcirculation in healthy human adults using a dual wavelength (infrared and visible-red) laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) system. KT was compared with rigid taping and no taping controls to isolate the effects associated with the elasticity of KT

          Methods

          Forty-five healthy male and female human adults were allocated to one of the three interventions using constrained randomisation following the pre-intervention measurement: (i) KT (ii) ST (standard taping) (iii) NT (no taping). Cutaneous blood perfusion was measured using LDI in the ventral surface of forearm at pre-intervention, during-intervention and post-intervention in a normothermic environment at resting conditions.

          Results

          Mixed ANOVA of both infrared and visible-red datasets revealed no statistically significant interaction between Intervention and Time. There was statistically significant main effect for Time but not Intervention.

          Conclusion

          KT does not increase cutaneous blood microcirculation in healthy human adults under resting physiological conditions in a normothermic environment. On the contrary, evidence suggests that taping, regardless of the elasticity in the tape, is associated with immediate reductions in cutaneous blood flow.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging.

           J D Briers (2001)
          Laser Doppler velocimetry uses the frequency shift produced by the Doppler effect to measure velocity. It can be used to monitor blood flow or other tissue movement in the body. Laser speckle is a random interference effect that gives a grainy appearance to objects illuminated by laser light. If the object consists of individual moving scatterers (such as blood cells), the speckle pattern fluctuates. These fluctuations provide information about the velocity distribution of the scatterers. It can be shown that the speckle and Doppler approaches are different ways of looking at the same phenomenon. Both these techniques measure at a single point. If a map of the velocity distribution is required, some form of scanning must be introduced. This has been done for both time-varying speckle and laser Doppler. However, with the speckle technique it is also possible to devise a full-field technique that gives an instantaneous map of velocities in real time. This review article presents the theory and practice of these techniques using a tutorial approach and compares the relative merits of the scanning and full-field approaches to velocity map imaging. The article concludes with a review of reported applications of these techniques to blood perfusion mapping and imaging.
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            Interstitial flow and its effects in soft tissues.

            Interstitial flow plays important roles in the morphogenesis, function, and pathogenesis of tissues. To investigate these roles and exploit them for tissue engineering or to overcome barriers to drug delivery, a comprehensive consideration of the interstitial space and how it controls and affects such processes is critical. Here we attempt to review the many physical and mathematical correlations that describe fluid and mass transport in the tissue interstitium; the factors that control and affect them; and the importance of interstitial transport on cell biology, tissue morphogenesis, and tissue engineering. Finally, we end with some discussion of interstitial transport issues in drug delivery, cell mechanobiology, and cell homing toward draining lymphatics.
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              • Article: not found

              Methodological issues in the assessment of skin microvascular endothelial function in humans.

              The study of microvascular function can be performed in humans using laser Doppler flowmetry of the skin. This technology lends itself to a wide range of applications for studying the endothelial function of skin blood vessels. We review the advantages and limitations of postocclusive hyperemia, local thermal hyperemia, acetylcholine iontophoresis, flowmotion and association with microdialysis as tools with which to investigate skin microvascular endothelial function in humans. Postocclusive hyperemia, thermal hyperemia and acetylcholine iontophoresis provide integrated indexes of microvascular function rather than specific endothelial markers. However, they are valuable tools and can be used as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials in which the assessment of microvascular function in humans is required.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SoftwareRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                21 February 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Centre for Pain Research, School of Clinical and Applied Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, England, United Kingdom
                [2 ] Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, England, United Kingdom
                Anglia Ruskin University UK, UNITED KINGDOM
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-17407
                10.1371/journal.pone.0229386
                7034885
                32084245
                © 2020 Banerjee et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100012008, Jane Tomlinson Appeal;
                Award Recipient :
                This project was funded by a PhD student bursary from the Jane Tomlinson Appeal, United Kingdom ( https://www.janetomlinsonappeal.com/) at Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Cardiovascular Physiology
                Blood Circulation
                Microcirculation
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Cardiovascular Physiology
                Blood Circulation
                Microcirculation
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Flow
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Flow
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Flow
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Body Fluids
                Blood
                Blood Flow
                Engineering and Technology
                Equipment
                Optical Equipment
                Lasers
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Arms
                Forearms
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Arms
                Forearms
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Ultrasound Imaging
                Doppler Imaging
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Imaging Techniques
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Ultrasound Imaging
                Doppler Imaging
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Radiology and Imaging
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Ultrasound Imaging
                Doppler Imaging
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Mathematical and Statistical Techniques
                Mathematical Functions
                Convolution
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics
                Statistical Data
                Custom metadata
                The data underlying the results presented in the study are available from Figshare ( doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11663538).

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