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      Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Ocular Arterial and Venous Occlusive Disease

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          Purpose: It was the aim of this study to evaluate antiphospholipid antibodies (APA), i.e. lupus anticoagulants (LA) and anticardiolipin (ACA) IgG and IgM, in ophthalmic occlusive disease. Methods: Over a 3.5-year period, APA were evaluated in 368 patients. Results: Eighty-six patients (23.4%), compared to 5% in the general population, tested positive for APA. APA did not differ significantly between patients with venous (20.6%) or arterial (25.5%) occlusive disease. This included 93 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (18% APA positive), 67 with retinal branch vein occlusion (24% APA positive), 41 with central retinal artery occlusion (22% APA positive), 53 with retinal branch artery occlusion (32% APA positive), 71 with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (23% APA positive), 12 with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (33% APA positive) and 31 patients with amaurosis fugax (23% APA positive). Excluding patients with accepted main risk factors, APA were positive in 15.3% of 85 patients. Conclusion: The high APA prevalence confirms its relevance in ocular occlusive disorders.

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          Analysis of prothrombotic and vascular risk factors in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

          To determine whether genetic or acquired thrombophilias and other risk factors are associated with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Retrospective case-control study. Sixty-one patients with NAION diagnosed between 1984 and 1997. Ninety consecutive patients who visited the Eye Institute made up the control group. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lupus anticoagulant, and three recently described prothrombotic polymorphisms (i.e., factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] C677T) were analyzed. In addition, risk factors for arteriosclerotic vascular disease were assessed. Parameters of thrombophilia. None of the thrombophilic markers (genetic and acquired) constituted a significant risk factor for NAION. Ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were discerned as risk factors for NAION with odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.4), 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2-5.5), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1-4.8), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia exerted an additive risk for NAION with a combined odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI, 1.4-14.5). However, none of these risk factors statistically predicted second eye involvement. NAION was not found to be associated with thrombophilic risk factors, yet it was related to ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus.
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            Antiphospholipid antibodies and retinal thrombosis in patients without risk factors: a prospective case-control study.

            To determine the prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies and other immunologic abnormalities in patients with occlusive retinal vascular events, exempt from conventional risk factors of retinal thrombosis. Forty patients with retinal vascular occlusion (26 with retinal vein occlusions, eight with arterial occlusions, two with combined venous and arterial occlusions, and four with venous occlusions plus vasculitis), free of main accepted risk factors for retinal thrombosis, were prospectively screened for antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin-antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and other immunologic abnormalities. Fourteen patients were younger than 50 years. Prevalence and mean values of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were compared with those in a homogeneous control group of 40 patients. The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the study group was 22.5% (nine of 40). Comparison with control group prevalence (5% [two of 40]) showed a statistically significant difference (P = .04). Six patients in the study group disclosed positivity for IgG-anticardiolipin antibodies, one patient for IgM anticardiolipin antibodies, and two patients for both isotypes IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies. The antibody assay for lupus anticoagulant was negative for all patients. Three patients were diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and are undergoing systemic anticoagulant therapy. Relevant immunologic abnormalities were also found (27.5% with antinuclear antibodies, 35% with elevation of circulating immune complexes, 35% with complement deficiency, 30% with positive rheumatoid factor, and 17.5% with positive C-reactive protein). Thirteen patients (32.5%) had more than four parameters altered. No significant association was found between prevalence or mean values of anticardiolipin antibody and patients younger than 50 years. The high prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with vaso-occlusive retinopathy exempt from conventional risk factors, and the relevant diagnostic and therapeutic implications, lead us to recommend a systematic search for specific antiphospholipid antibodies in such patients.
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              Meta-analysis of the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with antiphospholipid antibodies without underlying autoimmune disease or previous thrombosis


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                18 December 2006
                : 221
                : 1
                : 41-46
                aEye Hospital, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; bEye Hospital, cInstitute of Laboratory Medicine, and dInstitute of Haemostaseology and Transfusion Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany
                96521 Ophthalmologica 2007;221:41–46
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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