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      A new modified technique of laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy: a 2-year follow-up study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to establish a modified technique for performing laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy.

          Methods

          From May 2011 to October 2013, laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy was performed in 21 patients with esophageal cancer. During the procedure, jejunal inflation was performed via a percutaneous 20-gauge intravenous catheter to facilitate the subsequent puncture of the jejunal wall by the catheter needle. The success rate, procedure time, complications, and short-term outcomes were evaluated.

          Results

          All laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomies were technically successful, with no perioperative mortality or conversion to a laparotomy. The operation required a mean time of 51.4±14.2 (range 27–80) minutes, and operative bleeding range was 5–20 mL. There was one reoperation required for one patient on postoperative day 5, because the feeding tube was accidentally pulled out during sleep, by patient himself, and the second laparoscopic jejunostomy for this patient was performed successfully. One patient had puncture site pain and was successfully treated with oral analgesics. Other complications, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, tube dysfunction, pericatheter leakage, and infection at the skin insertion site, were not observed. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.8% (one out of 21), which was not attributed to the procedure. Enteral nutrition was gradually administered 24–48 hours after operation.

          Conclusion

          The novel modified technique of laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy is a technically feasible, with a high technical success rate and low complication rate. Its specific advantage is simplicity and safety, and this modified approach can be considered for routine clinical use after long-term outcome evaluation.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Complications of needle catheter jejunostomy in 2,022 consecutive applications.

          We commonly use needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) for early enteral feeding in selected patients. Review of our approach was prompted by the suggestion that enteral feeding represents a "stress test" for the bowel and may be associated with a high complication rate. We reviewed patients with NCJ inserted over the past 16 years by prospective database, chart review, and conference minutes, with emphasis on complications. During the conduct of 28,121 laparotomies, 2,022 NCJs inserted in 1,938 patients (7.2%) resulted in 34 NCJ-related complications in 29 patients (1.5%) The most common complication was premature loss of the catheter from occlusion or dislodgment (n = 15; 0.74%), and the most serious was bowel necrosis (n = 3; 0.15%). Needle catheter jejunostomy may be inserted and used with a low complication rate. Most complications were preventable through greater attention to detail and better monitoring of physical examination of patients with marginal gut function.
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            Is routine postoperative enteral feeding after oesophagectomy worthwhile?

            A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether, in patients undergoing an oesophagectomy for cancer, immediate postoperative enteral feeding (via percutaneous jejunostomy or nasojejunostomy) provides better patient outcomes as compared to waiting until oral feeding can be instituted. Four randomized controlled trials represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The first study randomized 25 patients into enteral feeding via jejunostomy (n = 13) versus a routine diet without jejunostomy (n = 12). The authors found no statistical difference in outcomes including length of stay, anastomotic complications and mortality. They did not report any catheter-related complications. A second study included patients undergoing an oesophagectomy or a pancreatodudenectomy, randomized to immediate postoperative jejunostomy feeding (n = 13) or remaining unfed for 6 days (n = 15). They reported one incident of detachment of the catheter from the abdominal wall. They also noted a statistically significant decrease in vital capacity and FEV1 in enterally fed patients. There was no difference in length of stay or anastomotic complications. They concluded that there was no indication for routine use of immediate postoperative enteral feeding in those patients without significant preoperative malnutrition. A third report randomized their post-oesophagectomy patients into enteral feeding via jejunostomy (n = 20) versus crystalloid only (n = 20). The also found no difference in length of stay, anastomotic leak rate or mortality. One catheter was removed due to concerns over respiratory function. They also concluded that there was no measurable benefit in early enteral feeding. The last of these 4 studies randomized patients into naso-duodenal feeding (n = 71) and jejunostomy feeding groups (n = 79). As in previous trials, they found no statistically significant difference between length of stay or anastomotic leak rates. Mortality was higher in the jejunostomy group, although the team did not attribute the deaths to the catheter. They found both methods equally effective in providing postoperative nutrition. In summary, all the trials concluded that routine postoperative enteral nutrition was feasible, but there was no evidence suggesting that it conferred any clinical benefits.
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              Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy in esophagogastric cancer.

              Patients with esophagogastric malignancies often require nutritional supplementation in the perioperative period, especially in the setting where neoadjuvant therapy may delay tumor resection. A simple technique is described here that can be performed at the time of staging laparoscopy and that has not been described before. Forty-three patients treated over a 4-year period who had a laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of staging laparoscopy were reviewed. Of these, 35 had preoperative chemotherapy according to a modified MRC OEO2 protocol. In the period between staging and eventual resection, 32% required immediate feeding, and in 14% of those who were thought not to need feeding it later became necessary. More patients gained weight or had a rise in albumin in the group that had jejunal feeding (p < 0.05). The mean time to surgery was 10 weeks. There were no conversions to an open procedure, nor were there any laparotomies for tube-related complications. Dislodgement was recorded in 6 patients; blockage, in 4. In most of these cases a simple bedside replacement of the tube was all that was required. Mean time in the operating room for each procedure was 44 minutes. Laparoscopic percutaneous feeding jejunostomy is a safe and simple technique that adds little to the morbidity and cost of managing patients with esophagogastric cancers. It facilitates optimization of nutrition in the perioperative period for these patients, especially in those receiving preoperative chemotherapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                25 January 2016
                : 12
                : 103-108
                Affiliations
                Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian Hu, Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 571 8723 6770, Fax +86 571 8723 6770, Email hujianhz@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                tcrm-12-103
                10.2147/TCRM.S87071
                4734724
                26869794
                © 2016 Ye et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                esophageal cancer, laparoscopy, needle catheter jejunostomy

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