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Antimicrobial Activity of Toothpastes Containing Natural Extracts, Chlorhexidine or Triclosan

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      Abstract

      Abstract: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax(r)), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil(r)) or fluoride (Sorriso(r), control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso(r)), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

      Translated abstract

      Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano de dentifrícios contendo extratos naturais, clorexidina ou triclosan. A efetividade dos dentifrícios contendo extratos naturais (Parodontax(r)), 0,12% de clorexidina (Cariax(r)), 0,3% de triclosan (Sanogil(r)) ou flúor (Sorriso(r), controle) foi avaliada contra leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas utilizando o método de difusão em disco. A água foi utilizada como um controle. Discos impregnados com os dentifrícios foram colocados em placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura inoculados com 23 microrganismos indicadores pelo método "pour plate". Após a incubação, os halos de inibição do crescimento foram medidos e as análises estatísticas (=0,05) foram realizadas. Os resultados indicaram que todas as formulações, com exceção do dentifrício convencional (Sorriso(r)), apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e leveduras. O dentifrício contendo extratos naturais (Parodontax(r)) foi o único produto capaz de inibir o crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Os dentifrícios contendo clorexidina, triclosan ou extratos naturais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e leveduras.

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      Most cited references 24

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      Chlorhexidine: is it still the gold standard?

       Alison Jones (1997)
      After 20 years of use by the dental profession, chlorhexidine is recognized as the gold standard against which other antiplaque and gingivitis agents are measured. Chlorhexidine's antiplaque effect is a result of the dicationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule, which affords the agent the property of persistence of antimicrobial effect at the tooth surface, through both bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Although other antiplaque agents may show either purely immediate effect, or limited persistence, the degree of chlorhexidine's persistence of effect at the tooth surface is the basis of its clinical efficacy. Similarly, the cationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule is the basis of the most common side effect associated with the use of the agent--extrinsic tooth staining. Such tooth staining seems to be the result of a local precipitation reaction between tooth-bound chlorhexidine and chromogens found within foodstuffs and beverages. The cationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule also means that the activity of the agent is rapidly reduced in the presence of anionic agents, specifically those found within certain types of toothpaste; thus care is required when using normal toothbrushing alongside chlorhexidine. By understanding how the chemical properties of the chlorhexidine molecule can explain the plethora of clinical efficacy and safety data, the use of chlorhexidine can be optimally aimed towards the patient groups who would most benefit from the superior therapeutic effect of the agent. Specifically, chlorhexidine would seem to be of most value to patients in whom the ability to perform adequate oral hygiene procedures has been compromised. In these individuals the delivery of the correct dose of chlorhexidine to the tooth surface can be optimized through the judicial use of the several different chlorhexidine formulations now available. Thus, by understanding the properties and limitations of the chlorhexidine molecule, the dental profession can ensure that the efficacy of the agent is maximized, and the side effects associated with the agent are minimized, allowing chlorhexidine to rightly remain the gold standard against which other antiplaque agents are measured.
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        Controlling the oral biofilm with antimicrobials.

         Anthony Marsh (2010)
        The aim of this article is to review the properties of compounds available for the control of dental plaque biofilms, and describe their mode of action. The mouth is colonised by a diverse but characteristic collection of micro-organisms, which confer benefit to host. Numerous antiplaque (e.g. surfactants, essential oils) and antimicrobial agents (e.g. bisbiguanides, metal ions, phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, etc.) have been successfully formulated into toothpastes and mouthrinses to control plaque biofilms. At high concentrations, these agents can remove biofilm and/or kill disease-associated bacteria, while even at sub-lethal levels they can inhibit the expression of pathogenic traits. Successful antimicrobial agents are able to meet the apparently contradictory requirements of maintaining the oral biofilm at levels compatible with oral health but without disrupting the natural and beneficial properties of the resident oral microflora. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Effect of oral bacteria on growth and survival of Candida albicans biofilms.

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight aerobic and anaerobic oral commensal bacterial species on in vitro Candida albicans biofilm development. A single isolate of C. albicans 2560 g, and eight different species of oral bacteria comprising, Actinomyces israelii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Prevotella nigrescens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus intermedius were studied using an in vitro biofilm assay. Biofilm formation was quantified in terms of the ability of Candida to grow on polystyrene plastic surfaces co-cultured with the foregoing bacteria. A viable cell count was used to quantify the sessile yeast growth and scanning electron microscopy was employed to confirm and visualize biofilm formation. Co-culture with differing concentrations of bacteria had variable effects on Candida biofilm formation. Co-culture with the highest concentrations of each of the foregoing bacteria resulted in a consistent reduction in the yeast counts in the candidal biofilm (P<0.05), except for L. acidophilus, S. mutans, and, S. intermedius co-cultures. Further, on regression analysis a significant negative correlation between the co-culture concentration of either P. gingivalis or E. coli and viable yeast counts in the biofilm was noted (P<0.05) although this was not evident for the other bacterial species. Taken together, our data indicate that, quantitative and qualitative nature of the bacteria modulate C. albicans biofilm formation in mixed species environments such as the oral cavity.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            bdj
            Brazilian Dental Journal
            Braz. Dent. J.
            Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto )
            1806-4760
            July 2014
            : 25
            : 3
            : 186-190
            S0103-64402014000300186
            10.1590/0103-6440201300027

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            DENTISTRY, ORAL SURGERY & MEDICINE

            Dentistry

            Parodontax, antibacterial agents, natural extracts, toothpastes, microbiology

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