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Amplicon-Based Sequencing of Soil Fungi from Wood Preservative Test Sites

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      Abstract

      Soil samples were collected from field sites in two AWPA (American Wood Protection Association) wood decay hazard zones in North America. Two field plots at each site were exposed to differing preservative chemistries via in-ground installations of treated wood stakes for approximately 50 years. The purpose of this study is to characterize soil fungal species and to determine if long term exposure to various wood preservatives impacts soil fungal community composition. Soil fungal communities were compared using amplicon-based DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the rDNA array. Data show that soil fungal community composition differs significantly between the two sites and that long-term exposure to different preservative chemistries is correlated with different species composition of soil fungi. However, chemical analyses using ICP-OES found levels of select residual preservative actives (copper, chromium and arsenic) to be similar to naturally occurring levels in unexposed areas. A list of indicator species was compiled for each treatment-site combination; functional guild analyses indicate that long-term exposure to wood preservatives may have both detrimental and stimulatory effects on soil fungal species composition. Fungi with demonstrated capacity to degrade industrial pollutants were found to be highly correlated with areas that experienced long-term exposure to preservative testing.

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      Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST.

       Robert Edgar (2010)
      Biological sequence data is accumulating rapidly, motivating the development of improved high-throughput methods for sequence classification. UBLAST and USEARCH are new algorithms enabling sensitive local and global search of large sequence databases at exceptionally high speeds. They are often orders of magnitude faster than BLAST in practical applications, though sensitivity to distant protein relationships is lower. UCLUST is a new clustering method that exploits USEARCH to assign sequences to clusters. UCLUST offers several advantages over the widely used program CD-HIT, including higher speed, lower memory use, improved sensitivity, clustering at lower identities and classification of much larger datasets. Binaries are available at no charge for non-commercial use at http://www.drive5.com/usearch.
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        Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

        Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.
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          VSEARCH: a versatile open source tool for metagenomics

          Background VSEARCH is an open source and free of charge multithreaded 64-bit tool for processing and preparing metagenomics, genomics and population genomics nucleotide sequence data. It is designed as an alternative to the widely used USEARCH tool (Edgar, 2010) for which the source code is not publicly available, algorithm details are only rudimentarily described, and only a memory-confined 32-bit version is freely available for academic use. Methods When searching nucleotide sequences, VSEARCH uses a fast heuristic based on words shared by the query and target sequences in order to quickly identify similar sequences, a similar strategy is probably used in USEARCH. VSEARCH then performs optimal global sequence alignment of the query against potential target sequences, using full dynamic programming instead of the seed-and-extend heuristic used by USEARCH. Pairwise alignments are computed in parallel using vectorisation and multiple threads. Results VSEARCH includes most commands for analysing nucleotide sequences available in USEARCH version 7 and several of those available in USEARCH version 8, including searching (exact or based on global alignment), clustering by similarity (using length pre-sorting, abundance pre-sorting or a user-defined order), chimera detection (reference-based or de novo), dereplication (full length or prefix), pairwise alignment, reverse complementation, sorting, and subsampling. VSEARCH also includes commands for FASTQ file processing, i.e., format detection, filtering, read quality statistics, and merging of paired reads. Furthermore, VSEARCH extends functionality with several new commands and improvements, including shuffling, rereplication, masking of low-complexity sequences with the well-known DUST algorithm, a choice among different similarity definitions, and FASTQ file format conversion. VSEARCH is here shown to be more accurate than USEARCH when performing searching, clustering, chimera detection and subsampling, while on a par with USEARCH for paired-ends read merging. VSEARCH is slower than USEARCH when performing clustering and chimera detection, but significantly faster when performing paired-end reads merging and dereplication. VSEARCH is available at https://github.com/torognes/vsearch under either the BSD 2-clause license or the GNU General Public License version 3.0. Discussion VSEARCH has been shown to be a fast, accurate and full-fledged alternative to USEARCH. A free and open-source versatile tool for sequence analysis is now available to the metagenomics community.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1FPL, United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), Durability and Wood Protection , Madison, WI, United States
            2NRS, United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), Center for Forest Mycology Research , Madison, WI, United States
            3Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison, WI, United States
            Author notes

            Edited by: Florence Abram, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland

            Reviewed by: Seung Gu Shin, Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea; Stefan Fränzle, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

            *Correspondence: Grant T. Kirker gkirker@ 123456fs.fed.us

            This article was submitted to Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Microbiol
            Front Microbiol
            Front. Microbiol.
            Frontiers in Microbiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-302X
            18 October 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5651271 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01997
            Copyright © 2017 Kirker, Bishell, Jusino, Palmer, Hickey and Lindner.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 3, Tables: 9, Equations: 0, References: 85, Pages: 16, Words: 11964
            Categories
            Microbiology
            Original Research

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