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      Low Toxocara Seroprevalence in People in Rural Durango, Mexico

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          Abstract

          The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in rural Mexico is largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in rural people in a northern Mexican state. We performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of 641 people living in rural Durango State including 282 subjects of the general population, 214 subjects of Huichol ethnicity, and 145 subjects of Mennonite ethnicity. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti -Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Three (0.5%) of the 641 subjects tested were positive for anti- Toxocara IgG antibodies. Of the 3 Toxocara seropositive subjects, two were females, aged 19 and 39 years, and one was male, aged 59 years. They had contacted with dogs, cleaned cat excrement, consumed unwashed raw fruits, contacted soil, or lived in a house with soil floors. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was similar among the 3 groups of population studied: 0.4% for the general population, 0.9% for Huicholes, and 0.0% for Mennonites (P = 0.41). In conclusion, the Toxocara seroprevalence found in subjects in rural Durango is low as compared with those reported in people from rural areas in other countries.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms.

          Although human toxocariasis ranks among the most common zoonotic infections worldwide, it remains relatively unknown to the public. The causal agents are the nematode parasites Toxocara canis and T. cati, whose definitive hosts are dogs and cats, respectively. When embryonated eggs are accidentally ingested by humans, larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate, via the bloodstream, to the liver, lungs, muscles, eye and central nervous system. Although most human infections are asymptomatic, two well-defined clinical syndromes are classically recognised: visceral larva migrans (a systemic disease caused by larval migration through major organs) and ocular larva migrans (a disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves). Two less-severe syndromes have recently been described, one mainly in children (covert toxocariasis) and the other mainly in adults (common toxocariasis). Here, the current laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology and main clinical features of both the systemic and ocular forms of human toxocariasis are reviewed. New developments in serological diagnosis are described, the available seroprevalence data are analysed, and the results of relevant clinical studies that have been published over the last decade are explored, to provide an updated overview of this neglected but highly prevalent human infection.
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            Human toxocariasis.

            Parasitic nematodes of the genus Toxocara are socioeconomically important zoonotic pathogens. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. Although tens of millions of people are estimated to be exposed to or infected with Toxocara spp, global epidemiological information on the relationship between seropositivity and toxocariasis is limited. Recent findings suggest that the effect of toxocariasis on human health is increasing in some countries. Here we review the salient background on Toxocara and biology, summarise key aspects of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis, describe what is known about its geographic distribution and prevalence, and make some recommendations for future research towards the prevention and control of this important disease.
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              A seroepidemiological survey for toxocariasis in apparently healthy residents in Gangwon-do, Korea.

              We investigated the sero-prevalence of toxocariasis among healthy Korean adults in 1999. A total of 314 sera from normal inhabitants in Whachon-gun, Gangwondo, Korea was examined for specific antibody levels against excretory-secretory products of second stage larvae of Toxocara (TES). The presence of cross-reactions with other helminthiases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, sparganosis or clonorchiasis was also checked by specific IgG ELISA. Sera showing positive reaction against TES were also tested by IgG immunoblot and by IgE ELISA. Out of 314 subjects, 16 was found to be positive by TES IgG ELISA and immunoblot, among whom 12 were also positive by TES IgE ELISA. Among the 16 seropositive samples, two sera showed positive reaction against Paragonimus and sparganum antigen, respectively. These results inferred that cross-reactions were negligible between toxocariasis and other helminthiases. Toxocariasis seroprevalence among Korean rural adults was detected to be approximately 5%.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                22 August 2019
                03 October 2019
                : 9
                : 3
                : 91-93
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N , 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [2 ]Colegio Anglo-Español Durango, Avenida Real del Mezquital 92 , 34199, Durango, Mexico
                Author notes
                *Author for correspondence: Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, México; Tel/Fax: 0052-618-8130527; E-mail: alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2019.00015
                © 2019, The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Original Research Paper

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