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      A new species of Baikal endemic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spongillida, Lubomirskiidae)

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      Pensoft Publishers

      ITS, mitochondrial IGRs, morphological analysis, Swartschewskia

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          This paper reports on a new species of the Baikal endemic sponge (fam. Lubomirskiidae ) Swartschewskia khanaevi sp. nov. The description of this species is based on morphological and molecular data (ITS and mitochondrial IGRs). Morphologically, S. khanaevi sp. nov. differs from S. papyracea by loose tracts arranged in an irregular network as well as the presence on strongyles of compound spines looking like tubercles densely ornamented with simple spines. Moreover, specimens of S. khanaevi sp. nov. show a peculiar structure of the aquiferous system at the body surface that may be an adaptive trait for environmental conditions. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that S. khanaevi sp. nov. forms a well-supported (0.99) monophyletic clade with S. papyracea and is allocated as its sister taxa.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

          Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species (potential new species revealed by molecular studies) is raised, and we show how they could be dealt with. Finally, we present a general strategy to help us succeed in building a Porifera tree along with the corresponding revised Porifera classification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The burrowing sponges of Bermuda

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              Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

              Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                22 January 2020
                : 906
                : 113-130
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Batorskaya Str. 3, 664 033 Irkutsk, Russia Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Irkutsk Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Olga O. Maikova ( maikova@ 123456lin.irk.ru )

                Academic editor: Roberto Pronzato

                Article
                39534
                10.3897/zookeys.906.39534
                6989567
                Natalia A. Bukshuk, Olga O. Maikova

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Demospongiae
                Lubomirskiidae
                Porifera
                Spongillidae
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia

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