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“Green” Nanotechnologies: Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Plants

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      Abstract

      While metal nanoparticles are being increasingly used in many sectors of the economy, there is growing interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods for nanoparticle production are chemical and physical approaches that are often costly and potentially harmful to the environment. The present review is devoted to the possibility of metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts. This approach has been actively pursued in recent years as an alternative, efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles with specified properties. This review provides a detailed analysis of the various factors affecting the morphology, size, and yield of metal nanoparticles. The main focus is on the role of the natural plant biomolecules involved in the bioreduction of metal salts during the nanoparticle synthesis. Examples of effective use of exogenous biomatrices (peptides, proteins, and viral particles) to obtain nanoparticles in plant extracts are discussed.

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      Most cited references 77

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      Simple analytical expression for the peak-frequency shifts of plasmonic resonances for sensing

      We derive a closed-form expression that accurately predicts the peak frequency-shift and broadening induced by tiny perturbations of plasmonic nanoresonators without critically relying on repeated electrodynamic simulations of the spectral response of nanoresonator for various locations, sizes or shapes of the perturbing objects. The force of the present approach, in comparison with other approaches of the same kind, is that the derivation is supported by a mathematical formalism based on a rigorous normalization of the resonance modes of nanoresonators consisting of lossy and dispersive materials. Accordingly, accurate predictions are obtained for a large range of nanoparticle shapes and sizes, used in various plasmonic nanosensors, even beyond the quasistatic limit. The expression gives quantitative insight, and combined with an open-source code, provides accurate and fast predictions that are ideally suited for preliminary designs or for interpretation of experimental data. It is also valid for photonic resonators with large mode volumes.
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        Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter generally in the 1-100 nm dimension range. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as ultra small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents.
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          Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth.

          We report on the use of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth in the extracellular synthesis of pure metallic silver and gold nanoparticles and bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with Neem leaf extract, the rapid formation of stable silver and gold nanoparticles at high concentrations is observed to occur. The silver and gold nanoparticles are polydisperse, with a large percentage of gold particles exhibiting an interesting flat, platelike morphology. Competitive reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to Neem leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the silver nanoparticles are adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles, forming a core-shell structure. The rates of reduction of the metal ions by Neem leaf extract are much faster than those observed by us in our earlier studies using microorganisms such as fungi, highlighting the possibility that nanoparticle biological synthesis methodologies will achieve rates of synthesis comparable to those of chemical methods. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Bldg. 40, 119991, Moscow, Russia
            Advanced Technologies Center, 4-5-47 Stroiteley Str., 119311, Moscow, Russia
            The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, Scotland, UK
            Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Bldg. 2, 119991, Moscow, Russia
            Department of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Bldg. 12, 119991, Moscow, Russia
            Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova Str. 28, 119991, Moscow, Russia
            Contributors
            Journal
            Acta Naturae
            Acta Naturae
            ActaNaturae
            Acta Naturae
            A.I. Gordeyev
            2075-8251
            Jan-Mar 2014
            : 6
            : 1
            : 35-44
            24772325
            3999464
            Copyright ® 2014 Park-media Ltd.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article
            Molecular Biology

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