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      Effects of Calcium and Annatto Tocotrienol Supplementation on Bone Loss Induced by Pantoprazole in Male Rats

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          Prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors may cause bone loss, and limited therapeutic agents are available to prevent this skeletal side effect. The combination of annatto tocotrienol, a bone anabolic agent, with calcium presents a novel strategy to prevent bone loss caused by proton pump inhibitors. This study aims to compare the effects of calcium alone and in combination with annatto tocotrienol or vitamin D 3 (Caltrate Plus) in preventing bone loss caused by pantoprazole.


          Three-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats (n=30) were randomised into five groups (n=6/group). Bone loss was induced by pantoprazole (3 mg/kg p.o.) in four groups, and they were treated concurrently with either calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.), calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.) plus annatto tocotrienol (60 mg/kg p.o.) or Caltrate Plus (31 mg p.o.) for 60 days. The rats were euthanised at the end of the experiment, and their femurs were harvested for X-ray micro-computed tomography, bone cellular histomorphometry and bone mechanical strength analysis.


          Pantoprazole caused significant deterioration of trabecular bone microstructures but did not affect other skeletal indices. Calcium supplementation with or without annatto tocotrienol prevented the deterioration of trabecular microstructures at the femur but did not improve other skeletal indices. Annatto tocotrienol did not enhance the skeletal actions of calcium, whereas Caltrate Plus did not affect the bone health indices in these rats.


          Calcium supplementation per se can prevent the deterioration of bone trabecular microstructures in rats receiving long-term treatment of pantoprazole.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Proton-pump inhibitors and risk of fractures: an update meta-analysis.

           B. Zhou,  Y. Huang,  H. Li (2016)
          To identify the relationship between proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the risk of fracture, we conducted an update meta-analysis of observational studies. Results showed that PPI use was associated with a modestly increased risk of hip, spine, and any-site fracture.
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            Rat's age versus human's age: what is the relationship?

            Millions of mice are used annually in research and teaching. The exact relationship between age of the animals compared with the age of humans is still subject to discussion and controversy. Literature review analyzing the age of rats in comparison with men age. Were reviewed the existing publications on the subject contained in Medline / PUBMED, SciELO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Lilacs crossing the headings rats, experimental surgery and physiology. Rats rapidly develop during childhood and become sexually mature at about six weeks old, but reach social maturity five to six months later. In adulthood, every month of the animal is approximately equivalent to 2.5 human years. Several authors performed experimental studies in rats and estimated 30 days of human life for every day life of the animal. The differences in anatomy, physiology, development and biological phenomena must be taken into consideration when analyzing the results of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. Special care is necessary to be taken when the intention is to produce correlation with human life. For this, special attention is needed to verify the phase in days of the animal and its correlation with age in years of humans.
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              Comprehension of Top 200 Prescribed Drugs in the US as a Resource for Pharmacy Teaching, Training and Practice

              Pharmacists have access to a plethora of information related to drugs. Online compendia concerning top 200 prescribed drugs are readily-accessible, comparatively-easy to search. While these resources provide some information about the commonly prescribed drugs, they lack in furnishing in-depth knowledge to pharmacy students, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present the relevant details of top 200 most prescribed drugs in the United States. The names and therapeutic classes of top 200 prescribed drugs were compiled from online resources. The pharmacological actions of drugs, any reported adverse reactions and black box warnings are collected from drug bank resources, such as AccessPharmacy and Lexicomp. The paper provides comprehensive information about top 200 prescribed drugs, which includes generic names, pharmacological action, route of administration and adverse reaction profile including black box warning when applicable. Overall, the drug list may serve as an easy access of ideas for pharmacists, researchers and other healthcare professionals interested in developing new strategies for treating patients with various ailments.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                02 July 2020
                : 14
                : 2561-2572
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Islamic University of Malang , Kota Malang 65144, Malang, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kok-Yong Chin Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras56000, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaTel +603-9145 9573Fax +603-9145 9547 Email chinkokyong@ppukm.ukm.edu.my
                © 2020 Chin et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 43, Pages: 12
                Original Research


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