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      Associations of serum amyloid A and 25‐hydroxyvitamin D with diabetic nephropathy: A cross‐sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The present study investigated the relationships between serum amyloid A (SAA), 25‐hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)VD) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) to provide evidence for the prevention and management of DN.

          Methods

          A total of 182 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in this study. The levels of SAA, 25(OH)VD, and other conventional indicators were measured and analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied for the combined measurement of SAA and 25(OH)VD, and risk factors for DN were evaluated using binary logistic regression analysis.

          Results

          The levels of SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, and the level significantly increased with the progression of DN ( p < 0.05). In contrast, the level of 25(OH)VD in T2DM patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects, and the level significantly decreased with the progression of DN ( p < 0.05). The combined measurement of SAA and 25(OH)VD distinguished DN patients from T2DM patients better than the measurement of SAA or 25(OH)VD alone. SAA was an independent risk factor for DN, and 25(OH)VD was an independent protective factor for DN.

          Conclusion

          SAA and 25(OH)VD might be used as potential markers to identify patients at increased risk of developing DN.

          Abstract

          ROC curve of SAA and 25(OH)VD among patients with DN.

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          Most cited references34

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          2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2019

          (2018)
          The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, a multidisciplinary expert committee, are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional.diabetes.org/SOC.
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            Inflammatory molecules and pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

            Many lines of evidence, ranging from in vitro experiments and pathological examinations to epidemiological studies, show that inflammation is a cardinal pathogenetic mechanism in diabetic nephropathy. Thus, modulation of inflammatory processes in the setting of diabetes mellitus is a matter of great interest for researchers today. The relationships between inflammation and the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy involve complex molecular networks and processes. This Review, therefore, focuses on key proinflammatory molecules and pathways implicated in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the chemokines CCL2, CX3CL1 and CCL5 (also known as MCP-1, fractalkine and RANTES, respectively); the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, E-selectin and α-actinin 4; the transcription factor nuclear factor κB; and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor. Advances in the understanding of the roles that these inflammatory pathways have in the context of diabetic nephropathy will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In the next few years, promising new therapeutic strategies based on anti-inflammatory effects could be successfully translated into clinical treatments for diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy.
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              Chronic kidney disease and the risk for cardiovascular disease, renal replacement, and death in the United States Medicare population, 1998 to 1999.

              Knowledge of the excess risk posed by specific cardiovascular syndromes could help in the development of strategies to reduce premature mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The rates of atherosclerotic vascular disease, congestive heart failure, renal replacement therapy, and death were compared in a 5% sample of the United States Medicare population in 1998 and 1999 (n = 1,091,201). Patients were divided into the following groups: 1, no diabetes, no CKD (79.7%); 2, diabetes, no CKD (16.5%); 3, CKD, no diabetes (2.2%); and 4, both CKD and diabetes (1.6%). During the 2 yr of follow-up, the rates (per 100 patient-years) in the four groups were as follows: atherosclerotic vascular disease, 14.1, 25.3, 35.7, and 49.1; congestive heart failure, 8.6, 18.5, 30.7, and 52.3; renal replacement therapy, 0.04, 0.2, 1.6, and 3.4; and death, 5.5, 8.1, 17.7, and 19.9, respectively (P < 0.0001). With use of Cox regression, the corresponding adjusted hazards ratios were as follows: atherosclerotic vascular disease, 1, 1.30, 1.16, and 1.41 (P < 0.0001); congestive heart failure, 1, 1.44, 1.28, and 1.79 (P < 0.0001); renal replacement therapy, 1, 2.52, 23.1, and 38.9 (P < 0.0001); and death, 1, 1.21, 1.38, and 1.56 (P < 0.0001). On a relative basis, patients with CKD were at a much greater risk for the least frequent study outcome, renal replacement therapy. On an absolute basis, however, the high death rates of patients with CKD may reflect accelerated rates of atherosclerotic vascular disease and congestive heart failure.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yfm31095018@163.com
                Journal
                J Clin Lab Anal
                J Clin Lab Anal
                10.1002/(ISSN)1098-2825
                JCLA
                Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0887-8013
                1098-2825
                08 February 2022
                March 2022
                : 36
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1002/jcla.v36.3 )
                : e24283
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Laboratory Medicine The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang Lianyungang China
                [ 2 ] Department of Endocrinology The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang Lianyungang China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Fumeng Yang, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, PR China.

                Email: yfm31095018@ 123456163.com

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2636-7340
                Article
                JCLA24283
                10.1002/jcla.24283
                8906018
                35133014
                57be856d-7387-4dae-9bc5-780879b90400
                © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 25 January 2022
                : 30 December 2021
                : 28 January 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 8, Words: 5215
                Funding
                Funded by: Young and Middle‐aged Medical Talent Growth Fund of the Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang
                Award ID: TQ202101
                Funded by: Key Project of the Natural Science Foundation of Bengbu Medical College , doi 10.13039/501100007924;
                Award ID: 2020byzd342
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                March 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.2 mode:remove_FC converted:09.03.2022

                Clinical chemistry
                25‐hydroxyvitamin d,diabetic nephropathy,serum amyloid a,type 2 diabetes mellitus

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