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      How do plants feel the heat and survive?

      , ,
      Trends in Biochemical Sciences
      Elsevier BV

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          When defense pathways collide. The response of Arabidopsis to a combination of drought and heat stress.

          Within their natural habitat, plants are subjected to a combination of abiotic conditions that include stresses such as drought and heat. Drought and heat stress have been extensively studied; however, little is known about how their combination impacts plants. The response of Arabidopsis plants to a combination of drought and heat stress was found to be distinct from that of plants subjected to drought or heat stress. Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis plants subjected to a combination of drought and heat stress revealed a new pattern of defense response in plants that includes a partial combination of two multigene defense pathways (i.e. drought and heat stress), as well as 454 transcripts that are specifically expressed in plants during a combination of drought and heat stress. Metabolic profiling of plants subjected to drought, heat stress, or a combination of drought and heat stress revealed that plants subject to a combination of drought and heat stress accumulated sucrose and other sugars such as maltose and glucose. In contrast, Pro that accumulated in plants subjected to drought did not accumulate in plants during a combination of drought and heat stress. Heat stress was found to ameliorate the toxicity of Pro to cells, suggesting that during a combination of drought and heat stress sucrose replaces Pro in plants as the major osmoprotectant. Our results highlight the plasticity of the plant genome and demonstrate its ability to respond to complex environmental conditions that occur in the field.
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            Transcriptional Regulatory Network of Plant Heat Stress Response.

            Heat stress (HS) is becoming an increasingly significant problem for food security as global warming progresses. Recent studies have elucidated the complex transcriptional regulatory networks involved in HS. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulatory network and post-translational regulation of the transcription factors involved in the HS response. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation and small RNAs are important in heat-induced transcriptional responses and stress memory. It remains to be elucidated how plants sense and respond to HS. Several recent reports have discussed the heat sensing and signaling that activate transcriptional cascades; thus, we also highlight future directions of promoting crop tolerance to HS using these factors or other strategies for agricultural applications.
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              How do plants feel the heat?

              In plants, the heat stress response (HSR) is highly conserved and involves multiple pathways, regulatory networks and cellular compartments. At least four putative sensors have recently been proposed to trigger the HSR. They include a plasma membrane channel that initiates an inward calcium flux, a histone sensor in the nucleus, and two unfolded protein sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytosol. Each of these putative sensors is thought to activate a similar set of HSR genes leading to enhanced thermotolerance, but the relationship between the different pathways and their hierarchical order is unclear. In this review, we explore the possible involvement of different thermosensors in the plant response to warming and heat stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Trends in Biochemical Sciences
                Trends in Biochemical Sciences
                Elsevier BV
                09680004
                June 2022
                June 2022
                Article
                10.1016/j.tibs.2022.05.004
                35660289
                57bed596-8219-48fb-80e9-c19e72f59b53
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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