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      Protective effects of L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in proximal tubular cells against glomerular injury in anti-GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis

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          Abstract

          Background. In glomerulonephritis (GN), an overload of free fatty acids (FFA) bound to albumin in urinary protein may induce oxidative stress in the proximal tubules. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in human proximal tubules, but not rodents, participates in intracellular FFA metabolism and exerts anti-oxidative effects on the progression of tubulointerstitial damage. We examined whether tubular enhancement of this anti-oxidative action modulates the progression of glomerular damage in immune-mediated GN in hL-FABP chromosomal gene transgenic (Tg) mice.

          Methods. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) was induced in Tg and wild-type mice (WT). Proteinuria, histopathology, polymorphonuclear (PMN) influx, expression of tubulointerstitial markers for oxidative stress 4-hydroxy-2-Nonenal (HNE) and fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin), proximal tubular damage (Kim-1), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR γ) and inflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)] were analyzed. The mice were also treated with an angiotensin type II receptor blocker (ARB).

          Results. The urinary protein level in Tg mice decreased significantly during the acute phase (∼Day 5). Tg mice survived for a significantly longer time than WT mice, with an attenuation of tubulointerstitial damage score and expression of each tubulointerstitial damage marker observed at Day 7. Expression of inflammatory cytokines on Day 7 was higher in WT mice than Tg mice and correlated strongly with PPARγ expression in WT mice, but not in Tg mice. Interestingly, Tg mice showed insufficient PMN influx at 3 and 6 h, with simultaneous elevation of urinary L-FABP and reduction in HNE expression. The two strains of mice showed different types of glomerular damage, with mild mesangial proliferation in Tg mice and severe endothelial swelling with vascular thrombosis in WT mice. The glomerular damage in Tg mice was improved by administration of an ARB.

          Conclusions. The present experimental model suggests that tubular enhancement of L-FABP may protect mice with anti-GBM GN from progression of both tubulointerstitial and glomerular injury.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies.

           T Bertani,  G. Remuzzi (1998)
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            Renal L-type fatty acid--binding protein in acute ischemic injury.

            Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind unsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products during tissue injury from hypoxia. We evaluated the potential role of L-type FABP (L-FABP) as a biomarker of renal ischemia in both human kidney transplant patients and animal models. Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in the first urine produced from 12 living-related kidney transplant patients immediately after reperfusion of their transplanted organs, and intravital video analysis of peritubular capillary blood flow was performed simultaneously. A significant direct correlation was found between urinary L-FABP level and both peritubular capillary blood flow and the ischemic time of the transplanted kidney (both P < 0.0001), as well as hospital stay (P < 0.05). In human-L-FABP transgenic mice subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury, immunohistological analyses demonstrated the transition of L-FABP from the cytoplasm of proximal tubular cells to the tubular lumen. In addition, after injury, these transgenic mice demonstrated lower blood urea nitrogen levels and less histological injury than injured wild-type mice, likely due to a reduction of tissue hypoxia. In vitro experiments using a stable cell line of mouse proximal tubule cells transfected with h-L-FABP cDNA showed reduction of oxidative stress during hypoxia compared to untransfected cells. Taken together, these data show that increased urinary L-FABP after ischemic-reperfusion injury may find future use as a biomarker of acute ischemic injury.
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              Mechanisms of tubulointerstitial injury in the kidney: final common pathways to end-stage renal failure.

              There are many different glomerular disorders, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis. However, once glomerular damage reaches a certain threshold, the progression of renal disease is consistent and irreversible. Recent studies emphasized the crucial role of tubulointerstitial injury as a mediator of progression of kidney disease. One common mechanism that leads to renal failure via tubulointerstitial injury is massive proteinuria. Accumulating evidence suggests critical effects of filtered macromolecules on tubular cells, including lysosomal rupture, energy depletion, and tubular injury directly induced by specific components such as complement components. Another common mechanism is chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium. Tubulointerstitial damage results in the loss of peritubular capillaries, impairing blood flow delivery. Interstitial fibrosis also impairs oxygen diffusion and supply to tubular cells. This induces chronic hypoxia in this compartment, rendering a vicious cycle. Development of novel therapeutic approaches against these final common pathways will enable us to target any types of renal disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrol Dial Transplant
                ndt
                ndt
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Oxford University Press
                0931-0509
                1460-2385
                November 2011
                27 April 2011
                27 April 2011
                : 26
                : 11
                : 3465-3473
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: Yasuhiko Tomino; E-mail: yasu@ 123456juntendo.ac.jp
                [*]

                Both authors contributed equally to this study.

                Article
                10.1093/ndt/gfr110
                3203629
                21525165
                © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                II. Scientific Papers
                Original Articles
                Experimental Nephrology

                Nephrology

                oxidative stress, tubulointerstitial damage, l-fabp

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