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      Predictors of inotrope use in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgeries at separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

      , 1 , 2 , 3

      Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Left ventricular dysfunction is common after coronary artery bypass graft and valve replacement surgeries and is often treated with inotropic drugs to maintain adequate hemodynamic status. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic, clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and hemodynamic factors that are associated with use of inotropic drugs in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve replacement surgery.

          Methods

          The study included 97 patients who had undergone concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve replacement at Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota Medical School from January 2006 to December 2008. All data were collected retrospectively after reviewing electronic medical records. Inotropic support was defined as the use of dopamine [greater than or equal to] 5 ug/kg/min; any dose of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dobutamine, and milrinone at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass.

          Results

          Inotropic support was used in a total of 50 patients (52%) at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Average age of the patients requiring inotropic support was 72.2 +/- 8.8 years. The study identified four significant, independent predictors of inotrope use: (1) Cardiac index [less than or equal to]2.5 L/min/m2, (2) LVEDP [greater than or equal to] 20 mm Hg, (3) LVEF [less than or equal to]40%, and (4) CKD stage 3 to 5.

          Conclusion

          We identified four independent risk factors for postoperative use of inotropic support in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and arotic valve replacement surgery at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. The study results will be helpful to prospectively identify patients who will likely to require inotropic support at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic.

          Approximately half of patients with overt congestive heart failure (CHF) have diastolic dysfunction without reduced ejection fraction (EF). Yet, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and its relation to systolic dysfunction and CHF in the community remain undefined. To determine the prevalence of CHF and preclinical diastolic dysfunction and systolic dysfunction in the community and determine if diastolic dysfunction is predictive of all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional survey of 2042 randomly selected residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, aged 45 years or older from June 1997 through September 2000. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of systolic and diastolic function. Presence of CHF diagnosis by review of medical records with designation as validated CHF if Framingham criteria are satisfied. Subjects without a CHF diagnosis but with diastolic or systolic dysfunction were considered as having either preclinical diastolic or preclinical systolic dysfunction. The prevalence of validated CHF was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6%-2.8%) with 44% having an EF higher than 50%. Overall, 20.8% (95% CI, 19.0%-22.7%) of the population had mild diastolic dysfunction, 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5%-7.8%) had moderate diastolic dysfunction, and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.1%) had severe diastolic dysfunction with 5.6% (95% CI, 4.5%-6.7%) of the population having moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction with normal EF. The prevalence of any systolic dysfunction (EF < or =50%) was 6.0% (95% CI, 5.0%-7.1%) with moderate or severe systolic dysfunction (EF < or =40%) being present in 2.0% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.5%). CHF was much more common among those with systolic or diastolic dysfunction than in those with normal ventricular function. However, even among those with moderate or severe diastolic or systolic dysfunction, less than half had recognized CHF. In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, sex, and EF, mild diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 8.31 [95% CI, 3.00-23.1], P<.001) and moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 10.17 [95% CI, 3.28-31.0], P<.001) were predictive of all-cause mortality. In the community, systolic dysfunction is frequently present in individuals without recognized CHF. Furthermore, diastolic dysfunction as rigorously defined by comprehensive Doppler techniques is common, often not accompanied by recognized CHF, and associated with marked increases in all-cause mortality.
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            Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass.

            The purpose of this study was to identify patients at risk for the development of low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass. Low cardiac output syndrome was defined as the need for postoperative intraaortic balloon pump or inotropic support for longer than 30 minutes in the intensive care unit to maintain the systolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg and the cardiac index greater than 2.2 L/min per square meter. The preoperative patient characteristics that were independent predictors of low cardiac output syndrome were identified among 4558 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass at The Toronto Hospital between July 1, 1990, and December 31, 1993. The overall prevalence of low cardiac output syndrome was 9.1% (n = 412). The operative mortality rate was higher in patients in whom low cardiac output syndrome developed than in those in whom it did not develop (16.9% versus 0.9%, p < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression analyses identified nine independent predictors of low output syndrome (percent frequency in parentheses) and calculated the factor-adjusted odds ratios associated with each predictor: (1) left ventricular ejection fraction less than 20% (27%, odds ratio 5.7); (2) repeat operation (25%, odds ratio 4.4); (3) emergency operation (27%, odds ratio 3.7); (4) female gender (16%, odds ratio 2.5); (5) diabetes (13%, odds ratio 1.6); (6) age older than 70 years (13%, odds ratio 1.5); (7) left main coronary artery stenosis (12%, odds ratio 1.4); (8) recent myocardial infarction (16%, odds ratio 1.4); and (9) triple-vessel disease (10%, odds ratio 1.3). Low cardiac output syndrome is a clinical outcome that may result from inadequate myocardial protection or perioperative ischemic injury. Patients at high risk for the development of low cardiac output syndrome should be the focus of trials of new techniques of myocardial protection to resuscitate the ischemic myocardium.
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              Reversible ischemic left ventricular dysfunction: evidence for the "hibernating myocardium".

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cardiothorac Surg
                Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
                BioMed Central
                1749-8090
                2009
                12 June 2009
                : 4
                : 24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hospital Medicine, Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota Medical School, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Regions Hospital, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
                Article
                1749-8090-4-24
                10.1186/1749-8090-4-24
                2706226
                19519919
                Copyright © 2009 Ahmed et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Surgery

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