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      The genera Erhaia and Tricula (Gastropoda, Rissooidea, Amnicolidae and Pomatiopsidae) in Bhutan and elsewhere in the eastern Himalaya


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          Shells of the Rissooidea species that are known from Bhutan are characterized. Tricula montana is reported from that country for the first time. Two Erhaia species from Bhutan are described as new to science, viz. E. jannei sp. nov., and E. pelkiae sp. nov., The holotypes of the Erhaia species that were described from Nepal are figured with photographs for the first time and compared with the congeneric taxa from Bhutan and India. Erhaia nainitalensis is considered a senior synonym of E. chandeshwariensis . An identification key is presented for the Erhaia species of the Himalayan foothills.

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          Most cited references11

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          Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from molluscs.

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            Molecular systematics of Hydrobiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissooidea): testing monophyly and phylogenetic relationships

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              A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies

              Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                22 April 2020
                : 929
                : 1-17
                [1 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands
                [2 ] National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Thimphu, Bhutan National Biodiversity Centre Thimphu Bhutan
                [3 ] Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research, Bumthang, Bhutan Ugyen Wangchuk Institute for Conservation and Environmental Research Bumthang Bhutan
                [4 ] Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32 IFZ, D-35392 Giessen, Germany Zoological Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel Basel Switzerland
                [5 ] Zoological Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel, Switzerland Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Edmund Gittenberger ( egittenberger@ 123456yahoo.com )

                Academic editor: Thierry Backeljau

                Edmund Gittenberger, Pema Leda, Jigme Wangchuk, Choki Gyeltshen, Björn Stelbrink

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                Indian Sub-Continent and Himalayas


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