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      A space network structure constructed by tetraneedlelike ZnO whiskers supporting boron nitride nanosheets to enhance comprehensive properties of poly(L-lacti acid) scaffolds


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          In this study, the mechanical strength and modulus of poly( L-lacti acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were enhanced with the mechanical properties of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and tetraneedlelike ZnO whiskers (T-ZnO w). The adhesion and proliferation of cells were improved as well as osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was increased. Their dispersion statues in PLLA matrix were improved through a space network structure constructed by three-dimensional T-ZnO w supporting two-dimensional BNNSs. The results showed that the compressive strength, modulus and Vickers hardness of the scaffolds with incorporation of 1 wt% BNNSs and 7 wt% T-ZnO w together were about 96.15%, 32.86% and 357.19% higher than that of the PLLA scaffolds, respectively. This might be due to the effect of the pull out and bridging of BNNSs and T-ZnO w as well as the crack deflection, facilitating the formation of effective stress transfer between the reinforcement phases and the matrix. Furthermore, incorporation of BNNSs and T-ZnO w together into PLLA scaffolds was beneficial for attachment and viability of MG-63 cells. More importantly, the scaffolds significantly increased proliferation and promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The enhanced mechanical and biological properties provide the potentials of PLLA/BNNSs/T-ZnO w scaffolds for the application into bone tissue engineering.

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          Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA): Part I. Basic characteristics.

          Compounds that had neither calcined nor sintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles (particulate size 0.2-20 microns, averaging 3.0 microns, Ca/P = 1.69, and containing CO3(2-) uniformly distributed in a poly-L-lactide (PLLA, Mv: 400 KDa) matrix with a content of 20-50 wt% (with 10% increment) were reinforced into composites by a forging process, which was a unique compression molding, and were then machined on a lathe in order to produce practical radiopaque internal bone fixation devices having high mechanical strength which was maintained during bony union, total resorbability and bioactivity such as bone bonding capability and osteoconductivity. From the results of measurement of various mechanical properties, it was confirmed that the composites generally showed the highest mechanical strength among this type of reinforced bioceramic fibers or particles/bioresorbable polymer composite known to date. The bending strength (Sb) of about 270 MPa was far higher value than that for cortical bone, and the modulus (Eb) of 12 GPa was almost equivalent to that for cortical bone. In particular, the impact strength (Si) was extremely high at about two times the value (166 KJ/m2) of polycarbonate. The in vitro change in Sb, Mv (viscosity average molecular weight), Mw/Mn (molecular weight distribution) and crystallinity, and their relationship with each other was also examined by immersing samples in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). An immediate decrease in the initial Mv could be found in composites with high u-HA contents (30-50 wt%), although a time-lag stage for degradation where the initial Mv hardly changes was apparent in cases of PLLA-only or in a composite with a low u-HA content (20 wt%). The Sb changed with corresponding decremental curves for the Mv and retained over 200 MPa for up to 24 weeks, the period of time necessary for full bony union, so that the composite satisfied initial mechanical strengths while maintaining them for as long as necessary for internal bone fixation devices. These results supported the idea that there is a difference in the degradation process such that PLLA alone required a period of time to achieve the possibility of hydrolysis into the inner side, whereas composites with high u-HA contents (30-50 wt%) immediately filled with water through to the inner side and were hydrolyzed homogeneously. Many hydroxyapatite crystals deposited and grew on the surface after 3-6 d and generously covered the surface with a fairly thick layer after 7 d of post-immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) as evaluated by means of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). This suggested the ability of the radiopaque composites to bond to bone. Since the composites were dense and had ultra-high strength, and the processability was so excellent, many kinds of fine and accurate screws, pins, plates, and other internal bone fixation devices for orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial, craniofacial, and plastic and reconstructive surgeries could be produced by machining treatment. These devices have potential applications for clinical use following the assessment of adaptation during in vivo studies.
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            Fluorescent PLLA-nanodiamond composites for bone tissue engineering.

            Superior mechanical properties, rich surface chemistry, and good biocompatibility of diamond nanoparticles make them attractive in biomaterial applications. A multifunctional fluorescent composite bone scaffold material has been produced utilizing a biodegradable polymer, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND-ODA). The uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer led to significant increase in hardness and Young's modulus of the composites. Addition of 10%wt of ND-ODA resulted in more than 200% increase in Young's modulus and 800% increase in hardness, bringing the nanocomposite properties close to that of the human cortical bone. Testing of ND-ODA/PLLA as a matrix supporting murine osteoblast (7F2) cell growth for up to 1 week showed that the addition of ND-ODA had no negative effects on cell proliferation. ND-ODA serves as a multifunctional additive providing improved mechanical properties, bright fluorescence, and options for drug loading and delivery via surface modification. Thus ND-ODA/PLLA composites open up numerous avenues for their use as components of bone scaffolds and smart surgical tools such as fixation devices in musculoskeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Intense fluorescence of ND-ODA/PLLA scaffolds can be used to monitor bone re-growth replacing the implant in vivo.
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              Adhesion and proliferation of OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells on micro- and nano-scale topography structured poly(L-lactide).

              The impact of the surface topography of polylactone-type polymer on cell adhesion was to be concerned because the micro-scale texture of a surface can provide a significant effect on the adhesion behavior of cells on the surface. Especially for the application of tissue engineering scaffold, the pore size could have an influence on cell in-growth and subsequent proliferation. Micro-fabrication technology was used to generate specific topography to investigate the relationship between the cells and surface. In this study the pits-patterned surfaces of polystyrene (PS) film with diameters 2.2 and 0.45 microm were prepared by phase-separation, and the corresponding scale islands-patterned PLLA surface was prepared by a molding technique using the pits-patterned PS as a template. The adhesion and proliferation behavior of OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells morphology on the pits- and islands-patterned surface were characterized by SEM observation, cell attachment efficiency measurement and MTT assay. The results showed that the cell adhesion could be enhanced on PLLA and PS surface with nano-scale and micro-scale roughness compared to the smooth surfaces of the PLLA and PS. The OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells could grow along the surface with two different size islands of PLLA and grow inside the micro-scale pits of the PS. However, the proliferation of cells on the micro- and nano-scale patterned surface has not been enhanced compared with the controlled smooth surface.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                15 September 2016
                : 6
                : 33385
                [1 ]Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University , Changsha 410013, China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, the State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University , Changsha 410083, China
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University , Xi’an 710072, China
                [4 ]School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University , Changsha 410078, China
                [5 ]College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University , Xiangtan 411105, China
                [6 ]Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha 410011, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                : 09 May 2016
                : 25 August 2016



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