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      Eight new species of the spider genus Pimoa (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Tibet, China

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      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      Asia, description, diagnosis, taxonomy

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          Abstract

          Eight new species of the spider genus Pimoa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Tibet, China: P. cona Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. duiba Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. lemenba Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♀), P. mainling Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. nyingchi Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. rongxar Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. samyai Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), and P. yadong Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀). The DNA barcodes of the eight new species are documented.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Phylogeny of the orb-web building spiders (Araneae, Orbiculariae: Deinopoidea, Araneoidea)

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            Phylogeny of entelegyne spiders: affinities of the family Penestomidae (NEW RANK), generic phylogeny of Eresidae, and asymmetric rates of change in spinning organ evolution (Araneae, Araneoidea, Entelegynae).

            Penestomine spiders were first described from females only and placed in the family Eresidae. Discovery of the male decades later brought surprises, especially in the morphology of the male pedipalp, which features (among other things) a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). The presence of an RTA is synapomorphic for a large clade of spiders exclusive of Eresidae. A molecular data matrix based on four loci was constructed to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) penestomines are eresids and the RTA is convergent, or (2) penestomines belong within the RTA clade. Taxon sampling concentrated on the Eresidae and the RTA clade, especially outside of the Dionycha and Lycosoidea. Evolution of the cribellum, conventionally characterized as a primitive araneomorph spinning organ lost multiple times, is explored. Parsimony optimization indicates repeated appearances of the cribellum. Exploration of asymmetric rates of loss and gain in both a likelihood framework and using a Sankoff matrix under parsimony reveals that cribellum homology is supported when losses are two times more likely than gains. We suggest that when complicated characters appear (under parsimony optimization) to evolve multiple times, investigators should consider alternative reconstructions featuring a relatively high rate of loss. Evolution of other morphological characters is also investigated. The results imply revised circumscription of some RTA-clade families, including Agelenidae, Amaurobiidae, Cybaeidae, Dictynidae and Hahniidae. Some nomenclatural changes are formally proposed here; others await further investigation. The family Penestomidae (NEW RANK) is established. Tamgrinia, not Neoramia, is the cribellate sister clade of the ecribellate Agelenidae. Tamgrinia and the subfamily Coelotinae are transferred from the family Amaurobiidae to the family Agelenidae. Zanomys and its relatives are not coelotines but belong to a clade tentatively identified as Macrobuninae. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Spider taxonomy for an advanced China.

               S. Li,  Li,  SQ Li (2020)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                11 June 2020
                : 940
                : 79-104
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                [2 ] College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, Liaoning, China Shenyang Normal University Liaoning China
                [3 ] College of Life Science, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, China Hebei University Baoding China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Shuqiang Li ( lisq@ 123456ioz.ac.cn )

                Academic editor: D. Dimitrov

                Article
                49793
                10.3897/zookeys.940.49793
                7303224
                Xiaoqing Zhang, Tianqi Lan, Lei Nie, Shuqiang Li

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Araneae
                Systematics
                Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                pimoidae, description, diagnosis, taxonomy, animalia, araneae, asia

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