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      The Advanced Glycation Endproduct, Pentosidine, in the Carpal Ligament in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Undergoing Hemodialysis: Comparison with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


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          Background/Aims: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a major complication that occurs in the musculoskeletal system in patients on long-term hemodialysis (HD). Pentosidine is an advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) and there is evidence that shows AGEs contribute to the pathogenesis of the complications in patients undergoing HD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether pentosidine accumulates in the carpal ligament in patients undergoing HD with CTS in comparison with idiopathic CTS. Methods: Carpal ligaments and skin were obtained during surgery from 28 patients with CTS undergoing HD and 13 patients with idiopathic CTS (ID CTS). Pentosidine was measured by HPLC after hydrolysis of the samples, and amyloid deposits in the samples of HD CTS were examined histologically. Results: Pentosidine levels in ligament and skin were significantly higher in HD CTS than ID CTS. On the other hand, there was no difference in pyridinoline which is a physical cross-link between HD and ID CTS. Amyloid deposits were observed in 14 ligament samples, whereas there was none in 14 other samples. There was no significant difference in pentosidine and pyridinoline in ligament, pentosidine in skin, duration of HD and serum β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin between the amyloid+ group and the amyloid– group. Conclusion: A greater concentration of pentosidine in the carpal ligament in HD patients compared with idiopathic patients suggests that an accumulation of AGEs contributes to one of the pathologies of occurrence of CTS in patients undergoing HD.

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          The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases

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            Reactive glycosylation endproducts in diabetic uraemia and treatment of renal failure.

            In diabetes and ageing, glucose-derived advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) cross-link proteins and cause vascular tissue damage. Elimination of circulating low-molecular weight AGE-modified molecules (LMW-AGEs) by the kidney is impaired in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease, a group subject to accelerated atherosclerosis. We determined the effectiveness of current renal replacement treatments on elimination of serum LMW-AGEs in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Although diabetic patients receiving high-flux haemodialysis achieved 33% lower steady-state serum LMW-AGE than did those in conventional haemodialysis (p < 0.005), LMW-AGE concentrations remained 3.5-6 fold above normal, whether high-flux dialysis, conventional haemodialysis, or chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were used. High-flux haemodialysis markedly reduced AGE during each treatment session (47.9% in the diabetic, p < 0.001 and 60.6% in the non-diabetic group, p < 0.001) but concentrations returned to pre-treatment range within 3 hours. In contrast, normal LMW-AGE concentrations were maintained in patients with functioning renal transplants. We found that LMW-AGEs with an apparent molecular weight of 2000-6000 circulate and retain strong inherent chemical reactivity--when exposed to collagen in vitro, up to 77% attached covalently to form AGE-collagen, and the AGE-crosslink inhibitor aminoguanidine completely inhibited this reaction. The results suggest that LMW-AGEs comprise a set of chemically-reactive molecules that are refractory to removal by current dialysis treatments. Through covalent reattachment onto vascular matrix or serum components, LMW-AGEs may exacerbate vascular pathology associated with end-stage renal disease.
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              Identification of pentosidine as a native structure for advanced glycation end products in beta-2-microglobulin-containing amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis.

              beta-2-Microglobulin (beta-2m) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). Recently, we found that the pigmented and fluorescent adducts formed nonenzymatically between sugar and protein, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), were present in beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils, suggesting the possible involvement of AGE-modified beta-2m in bone and joint destruction in DRA. As an extension of our search for the native structure of AGEs in beta-2m of patients with DRA, the present study focused on pentosidine, a fluorescent cross-linked glycoxidation product. Determination by both HPLC assay and competitive ELISA demonstrated a significant amount of pentosidine in amyloid-fibril beta-2m from long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA, and the acidic isoform of beta-2m in the serum and urine of hemodialysis patients. A further immunohistochemical study revealed the positive immunostaining for pentosidine and immunoreactive AGEs and beta-2m in macrophage-infiltrated amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA. These findings implicate a potential link of glycoxidation products in long-lived beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils to the pathogenesis of DRA.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 1998
                07 December 1998
                : 80
                : 4
                : 444-449
                a Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and b Second Department of Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
                45218 Nephron 1998;80:444–449
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45218
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/45218
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Amyloid, β2-Microglobulin, Pyridinoline, Cross-links


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