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      Silicate-Promoted Phosphorylation of Glycerol in Non-Aqueous Solvents: A Prebiotically Plausible Route to Organophosphates


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          Phosphorylation reactions of glycerol were studied using different inorganic phosphates such as sodium phosphate, trimetaphosphate (a condensed phosphate), and struvite. The reactions were carried out in two non-aqueous solvents: formamide and a eutectic solvent consisting of choline-chloride and glycerol in a ratio of 1:2.5. The glycerol reacted in formamide and in the eutectic solvent with phosphate to yield its phosphorylated derivatives in the presence of silicates such as quartz sand and kaolinite clay. The reactions were carried out by heating glycerol with a phosphate source at 85 °C for one week and were analyzed by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The yield of the phosphorylated glycerol was improved by the presence of silicates, and reached 90% in some experiments. Our findings further support the proposal that non-aqueous solvents are advantageous for the prebiotic synthesis of biomolecules, and suggest that silicates may have aided in the formation of organophosphates on the prebiotic earth.

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          Novel solvent properties of choline chloride/urea mixturesElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: spectroscopic data. See http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/cc/b2/b210714g/

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            Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.

            Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Glycerol eutectics as sustainable solvent systems


                Author and article information

                Life (Basel)
                Life (Basel)
                29 June 2017
                September 2017
                : 7
                : 3
                : 29
                [1 ]University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Ave. NES 204, Tampa, FL 33584, USA; ambermaheen@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; bcafferty@ 123456gmwgroup.harvard.edu
                [3 ]Georgia Institute of Technology, 315 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA; nick.hud@ 123456chemistry.gatech.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mpasek@ 123456usf.edu ; Tel.: +1-813-974-8979
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 26 April 2017
                : 23 June 2017

                prebiotic synthesis,phosphorylation,origin of life,deep eutectic solvents,formamide,mineral catalysis


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