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      Early Predictors of Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation: A Novel Perspective on an Enduring Problem

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          Most cited references 44

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          KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease.

           ,   (2006)
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            Increasing arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients: problems and solutions.

            National guidelines promote increasing the prevalence of fistula use among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of fistulas among hemodialysis patients reflects both national, regional, and local practice differences as well as patient-specific demographic and clinical factors. Increasing fistula prevalence requires increasing fistula placement, improving maturation of new fistulas, and enhancing long-term patency of mature fistulas for dialysis. Whether a patient receives a fistula depends on several factors: timing of referral for dialysis and vascular access, type of fistula placed, patient demographics, preference of the nephrologist, surgeon, and dialysis nurses, and vascular anatomy of the patient. Whether the placed fistula is useable for dialysis depends on additional factors, including adequacy of vessels, surgeon's experience, patient demographics, nursing skills, minimal acceptable dialysis blood flow, and attempts to revise immature fistulas. Whether a mature fistula achieves long-term patency depends on the ability to prevent and correct thrombosis. An optimal outcome is likely when there is (1) a multidisciplinary team approach to vascular access; (2) consensus about the goals among all interested parties (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists, dialysis nurses, and patients); (3) early referral for placement of vascular access; (4) restriction of vascular access procedures to surgeons with demonstrable interest and experience; (5) routine, preoperative mapping of the patient's arteries and veins; (6) close, ongoing communication among the involved parties; and (7) prospective tracking of outcomes with continuous quality assessment. Implementing these measures is likely to increase the prevalence of fistulas in any given dialysis unit. However, differences among dialysis units are likely to persist because of differences in gender, race, and co-morbidity mix of the patient population.
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              Effect of clopidogrel on early failure of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial.

              The arteriovenous fistula is the preferred type of vascular access for hemodialysis because of lower thrombosis and infection rates and lower health care expenditures compared with synthetic grafts or central venous catheters. Early failure of fistulas due to thrombosis or inadequate maturation is a barrier to increasing the prevalence of fistulas among patients treated with hemodialysis. Small, inconclusive trials have suggested that antiplatelet agents may reduce thrombosis of new fistulas. To determine whether clopidogrel reduces early failure of hemodialysis fistulas. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 9 US centers composed of academic and community nephrology practices in 2003-2007. Eight hundred seventy-seven participants with end-stage renal disease or advanced chronic kidney disease were followed up until 150 to 180 days after fistula creation or 30 days after initiation of dialysis, whichever occurred later. Participants were randomly assigned to receive clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose followed by daily dose of 75 mg; n = 441) or placebo (n = 436) for 6 weeks starting within 1 day after fistula creation. The primary outcome was fistula thrombosis, determined by physical examination at 6 weeks. The secondary outcome was failure of the fistula to become suitable for dialysis. Suitability was defined as use of the fistula at a dialysis machine blood pump rate of 300 mL/min or more during 8 of 12 dialysis sessions. Enrollment was stopped after 877 participants were randomized based on a stopping rule for intervention efficacy. Fistula thrombosis occurred in 53 (12.2%) participants assigned to clopidogrel compared with 84 (19.5%) participants assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97; P = .018). Failure to attain suitability for dialysis did not differ between the clopidogrel and placebo groups (61.8% vs 59.5%, respectively; relative risk, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.17; P = .40). Clopidogrel reduces the frequency of early thrombosis of new arteriovenous fistulas but does not increase the proportion of fistulas that become suitable for dialysis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00067119.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                JASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1046-6673
                1533-3450
                June 30 2020
                July 2020
                July 2020
                May 18 2020
                : 31
                : 7
                : 1617-1627
                Article
                10.1681/ASN.2019080848
                © 2020

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