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      Direct Comparison between Two 1-84PTH Assays in Dialysis Patients

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          Background/Aim: Today, two kinds of 1-84PTH assays are available in clinical practice. Few studies have directly compared the results of these assays in the same plasma. Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 235 dialysis patients and analyzed by the 1-84PTH-IRMA, intact PTH-IRMA, 1-84PTH-CLIA, and intact PTH-CLIA assays simultaneously. Results: The results obtained by the 1-84PTH-IRMA and 1-84PTH-CLIA were highly correlated to each other (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.971, p < 0.0001). In 90.2–92.3% of patients, the assays agreed when classifying them into three categories based on the K/DOQI guidelines. However, the 1-84PTH assays agreed in only 41.3–83.4% of patients when classifying them into two categories by calculating 1-84PTH/(intact PTH – 1-84PTH). Conclusion: The results obtained by the two assays could be regarded as comparable in clinical practice. However, the 1-84PTH/(intact PTH-1-84PTH) ratio has to be carefully applied since it amplified the error of these assays.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Development of a novel immunoradiometric assay exclusively for biologically active whole parathyroid hormone 1-84: implications for improvement of accurate assessment of parathyroid function.

          We developed a novel immunoradiometric assay (IRMA; whole parathyroid hormone [PTH] IRMA) for PTH, which specifically measures biologically active whole PTH(1-84). The assay is based on a solid phase coated with anti-PTH(39-84) antibody, a tracer of 125I-labeled antibody with a unique specificity to the first N-terminal amino acid of PTH(1-84), and calibrators of diluted synthetic PTH(1-84). In contrast to the Nichols intact PTH IRMA, this new assay does not detect PTH(7-84) fragments and only detects one immunoreactive peak in chromatographically fractionated patient samples. The assay was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 1.0 pg/ml with a linear measurement range up to 2,300 pg/ml. With this assay, we further identified that the previously described non-(1-84)PTH fragments are aminoterminally truncated with similar hydrophobicity as PTH(7-84), and these PTH fragments are present not only in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2 degrees -HPT) of uremia, but also in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (1 degrees -HPT) and normal persons. The plasma normal range of the whole PTH(1-84) was 7-36 pg/ml (mean +/- SD: 22.7 +/- 7.2 pg/ml, n = 135), whereas over 93.9% (155/165) of patients with 1 degrees -HPT had whole PTH(1-84) values above the normal cut-off. The percentage of biologically active whole PTH(1-84) (pB%) in the pool of total immunoreactive "intact" PTH is higher in the normal population (median: 67.3%; SD: 15.8%; n = 56) than in uremic patients (median:53.8%; SD: 15.5%; n = 318; p < 0.001), although the whole PTH(1-84) values from uremic patients displayed a more significant heterogeneous distribution when compared with that of 1 degrees -HPT patients and normals. Moreover, the pB% displayed a nearly Gaussian distribution pattern from 20% to over 90% in patients with either 1 degrees-HPT or uremia. The specificity of this newly developed whole PTH(1-84) IRMA is the assurance, for the first time, of being able to measure only the biologically active whole PTH(1-84) without cross-reaction to the high concentrations of the aminoterminally truncated PTH fragments found in both normal subjects and patients. Because of the significant variations of pB% in patients, it is necessary to use the whole PTH assay to determine biologically active PTH levels clinically and, thus, to avoid overestimating the concentration of the true biologically active hormone. This new assay could provide a more meaningful standardization of future PTH measurements with improved accuracy in the clinical assessment of parathyroid function.
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            Improved assessment of bone turnover by the PTH-(1-84)/large C-PTH fragments ratio in ESRD patients.

             H Mawad,  M Faugere,  Z. Geng (2001)
            The "intact" parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay recognizes PTH-(1-84) as well as amino terminally truncated PTH fragments, that is, large carboxyterminal PTH fragments (C-PTH fragments). The present study investigated whether the use of the plasma PTH-(1-84)/C-PTH fragment ratio enhances the noninvasive assessment of bone turnover in patients on dialysis. Bone biopsies and blood samples for determinations of routine indices of bone turnover and PTH peptides were obtained in 51 adult patients on dialysis not treated with drugs affecting bone such as vitamin D or corticosteroids. Blood levels of large C-PTH fragments were calculated by subtracting PTH-(1-84) from "intact" PTH. Patients were classified according to their levels of bone turnover based on histomorphometrically obtained results of activation frequency. Prediction of bone turnover by the various blood indices was done by using proper statistical methods. In addition, hypercalcemia was induced by calcium gluconate infusion in a subset of patients, and levels of PTH-(1-84), "intact" PTH, and PTH-(1-84)/C-PTH fragment ratio were determined. The PTH-(1-84)/C-PTH fragment ratio was the best predictor of bone turnover. A ratio> 1 predicted high or normal bone turnover (sensitivity 100%), whereas a ratio <1 indicated a high probability (sensitivity 87.5%) of low bone turnover. Calcium infusion resulted in decrease in PTH-(1-84)/C-PTH fragment ratio. The PTH-(1-84)/C-PTH fragment ratio predicts bone turnover with acceptable precision for biological measurements. Moreover, a change in serum calcium levels is one of the regulators of the relative amount of circulating PTH-(1-84) and its large C-PTH fragments.
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              Influence of PTH assay methodology on differential diagnosis of renal bone disease.

              Determination of plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) is routinely performed to diagnose and monitor renal bone disease. Recently, a new PTH assay ('whole PTH') using an antibody directed specifically against PTH(1-4) has been introduced. It was the aim of the current study to evaluate whole PTH and parameters derived from whole PTH in renal bone disease. The following measurements were carried out in blood samples from 141 unselected haemodialysis patients: three intact PTH assays (Nichols, Roche Elecsys), Scantibodies total); whole PTH (Scantibodies); bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP); tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b); osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Parameters derived from whole PTH were: (i) non-PTH(1-84), difference between intact PTH (Scantibodies assay) and whole PTH; (ii) whole PTH/non-PTH(1-84) ratio. The values generated by the intact PTH assays were comparable. The mean whole PTH concentration was lower than mean intact PTH concentrations (16.9+/-18.1 vs 26.4+/-30.5 pmol/l, Nichols, P 0.96, ns). The rank order of values generated by the whole PTH assay was statistically not significantly different from the rank order generated by the Nichols intact PTH assay. The median non-PTH(1-84) concentration was 5.2 pmol/l (range 0-49.4). All PTH assays correlated highly significantly with non-PTH(1-84) (correlation coefficients 0.83-0.92). Corrected serum calcium was also associated with non-PTH(1-84) but the correlation was weaker (r=0.28). Regression analysis indicated that the non-PTH(1-84) concentration could be predicted by 76.6-84.6% by the prevailing intact PTH concentrations. Other parameters contributed only marginally to prediction of non-PTH(1-84). In the entire patient group, there was no statistically significant correlation between the whole PTH/non-PTH(1-84) ratio and any of the PTH assays or biochemical bone markers. Eight of 141 patients had a whole PTH/non-PTH(1-84) ratio <1. TRAP 5b, bAP and osteocalcin had high correlations with intact PTH assays and the whole PTH assay (correlation coefficients 0.51-0.56, no significant difference). None of the PTH assays was superior to any other PTH assay in predicting serum concentrations of the bone markers. Therapy with active vitamin D metabolites (n=70) did not alter the results of our analyses. With respect to information about bone turnover we were not able to find differences between whole PTH and intact PTH assays. Our data also suggest that whole PTH and intact PTH assays give similar information. (i) The correlation between all PTH assays was very high. (ii) The rank order between whole PTH and Nichols intact PTH assays was comparable. (iii) The association between intact PTH assays and non-PTH(1-84) was very high. Albeit non-PTH(1-84) was mostly determined by the prevailing intact PTH concentration, diagnostic information on parathyroid activity provided by whole PTH or intact PTH, respectively, may differ in individual patients. How often this would happen cannot be answered with the currently available data. Unequivocal structural identification of the non-PTH(1-84) fraction would facilitate the answer to that question. The use of the whole PTH/non-PTH(1-84) ratio as a biochemical bone marker in renal bone disease requires further investigation.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                14 January 2005
                : 99
                : 1
                : c8-c12
                aDivision of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata and bDivision of Nephrology, Tokyo-Jikeikai Medical School Aoto Medical Center, Katsushika, Japan
                81788 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;99:c8–c12
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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