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      The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare

      , 1 , 2 , 3

      Scientifica

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways. Inadequate magnesium status may impair biochemical processes dependent on sufficiency of this element. Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions. This review assesses available medical and scientific literature on health issues related to magnesium. A traditional integrated review format was utilized for this study. Level I evidence supports the use of magnesium in the prevention and treatment of many common health conditions including migraine headache, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, premenstrual syndrome, preeclampsia, and various cardiac arrhythmias. Magnesium may also be considered for prevention of renal calculi and cataract formation, as an adjunct or treatment for depression, and as a therapeutic intervention for many other health-related disorders. In clinical practice, optimizing magnesium status through diet and supplementation appears to be a safe, useful, and well-documented therapy for several medical conditions.

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          Most cited references 134

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          Magnesium basics

          As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed.
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            Magnesium metabolism and its disorders.

            Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood. Magnesium deficiency is a common problem in hospital patients, with a prevalence of about 10%. There are no readily available and easy methods to assess magnesium status. Serum magnesium and the magnesium tolerance test are the most widely used. Measurement of ionised magnesium may become more widely available with the availability of ion selective electrodes. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesaemia can result from a variety of causes including gastrointestinal and renal losses. Magnesium deficiency can cause a wide variety of features including hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and cardiac and neurological manifestations. Chronic low magnesium state has been associated with a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. The use of magnesium as a therapeutic agent in asthma, myocardial infarction, and pre-eclampsia is also discussed. Hypermagnesaemia is less frequent than hypomagnesaemia and results from failure of excretion or increased intake. Hypermagnesaemia can lead to hypotension and other cardiovascular effects as well as neuromuscular manifestations. Causes and management of hypermagnesaemia are discussed.
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              Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride

              (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, No. 301, 9509-156 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5P 4J5
                2Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, 2935-66 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6K 4C1
                3University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Osman Kucuk

                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7874-2336
                Journal
                Scientifica (Cairo)
                Scientifica (Cairo)
                SCIENTIFICA
                Scientifica
                Hindawi
                2090-908X
                2017
                28 September 2017
                : 2017
                10.1155/2017/4179326
                5637834
                Copyright © 2017 Gerry K. Schwalfenberg and Stephen J. Genuis.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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