Fredric Jameson's cultural theory forms a crucial part of the Western Marxist theory. Jameson's postmodern cultural theory includes cultural expansion, cultural history, cultural hyperspace, cultural ideology, and so on. The cultural expansion includes the outline of popular sports culture. (1) Content: In order to further understand the acceptance of Jameson's cultural theory in China, this paper explores the communication of Jameson's cultural theory in different cultural groups, different regions, and different communication channels in China based on the questionnaire survey in a larger span of social groups. Meanwhile, based on Jameson's theory, it also reveals that sports is an effective way to achieve national stability and rejuvenation. Mainstream culture not only leads fashion, educates the people, serves society, and promotes development but also has the common characteristics of mass culture, commerce, entertainment, popularity, and media dependence. Sports is both mainstream culture and mass culture, which is the positive energy shared by both. (2) Methods: In order to understand the special meaning of Jameson's cultural theory and its influence on Chinese mass culture and sports, this paper systematically explains Jameson's cultural theory and gives a critical explanation to Jameson's cultural theory, different regions, and different communication channels in China based on the questionnaire survey in a large span of mass culture and sports groups. (3) Results: the majority of readers who buy and read Jameson's cultural works are mainly 25–35 years old with high educational background. The top three regions for the number of consumers who buy his papers and books are Zhejiang, Hubei, and Guangzhou; the top three regions in the number of understanding Jameson's cultural theory are Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen; 41.62% of the respondents only know Jameson's name but have not been exposed to his work; and 34.59% of the respondents have learned about his work through news feeds. (4) Conclusion: the influence of Jameson's cultural theory on Chinese mass culture and sports community is on the rise. Systematic sorting and interpretation of Jameson's cultural knowledge can provide support for Chinese mass culture and mass sports culture to carry forward socialist cultural thoughts.