Amphibian behavioral endocrinology has focused on reproductive social behavior and communication in frogs and newts. Androgens and estrogens are critical for the expression of male and female behavior, respectively, and their effects are relatively clear. Corticosteroids have significant modulatory effects on the behavior of both sexes, as does the peptide neuromodulator arginine vasotocin in males, but their effects and interactions with gonadal steroids are often complex and difficult to understand. Recent work has shown that the gonadal hormones and social behavior are mutually reinforcing: engaging in social interactions increases hormone levels just as increasing hormone levels change behavior. The reciprocal interactions of hormones and behavior, as well as the complex interactions among gonadal steroids, adrenal steroids, and peptide hormones have implications for the maintenance and evolution of natural social behavior, and suggest that a deeper understanding of both endocrine mechanisms and social behavior would arise from field studies or other approaches that combine behavioral endocrinology with behavioral ecology.