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      Conditions on Argument Drop

      Linguistic Inquiry

      MIT Press - Journals

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          Most cited references 11

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          On the evolution of cells.

           Carl Woese (2002)
          A theory for the evolution of cellular organization is presented. The model is based on the (data supported) conjecture that the dynamic of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is primarily determined by the organization of the recipient cell. Aboriginal cell designs are taken to be simple and loosely organized enough that all cellular componentry can be altered and/or displaced through HGT, making HGT the principal driving force in early cellular evolution. Primitive cells did not carry a stable organismal genealogical trace. Primitive cellular evolution is basically communal. The high level of novelty required to evolve cell designs is a product of communal invention, of the universal HGT field, not intralineage variation. It is the community as a whole, the ecosystem, which evolves. The individual cell designs that evolved in this way are nevertheless fundamentally distinct, because the initial conditions in each case are somewhat different. As a cell design becomes more complex and interconnected a critical point is reached where a more integrated cellular organization emerges, and vertically generated novelty can and does assume greater importance. This critical point is called the "Darwinian Threshold" for the reasons given.
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            How the microbial world saved evolution from the scylla of molecular biology and the charybdis of the modern synthesis.

            In this commentary, we provide a personal overview of the conceptual history of microbiology and molecular biology over the course of the last hundred years, emphasizing the relationship of these fields to the problem of evolution. We argue that despite their apparent success, all three reached an impasse that arose from the influence of dogmatic or overly narrow perspectives. Finally, we describe how recent developments in microbiology are realizing Beijerinck's vision of a field that is fully integrated with molecular biology, microbial ecology, thereby challenging and extending current thinking in evolution.
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              Three partial null-subject languages: a comparison of Brazilian Portuguese, Finnish and Marathi

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Linguistic Inquiry
                Linguistic Inquiry
                MIT Press - Journals
                0024-3892
                1530-9150
                April 2011
                April 2011
                : 42
                : 2
                : 267-304
                Article
                10.1162/LING_a_00042
                © 2011

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