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      Modeling, molecular dynamics, and docking assessment of transcription factor rho: a potential drug target in Brucella melitensis 16M


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          The zoonotic disease brucellosis, a chronic condition in humans affecting renal and cardiac systems and causing osteoarthritis, is caused by Brucella, a genus of Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular pathogens. The mode of transmission and the virulence of the pathogens are still enigmatic. Transcription regulatory elements, such as rho proteins, play an important role in the termination of transcription and/or the selection of genes in Brucella. Adverse effects of the transcription inhibitors play a key role in the non-successive transcription challenges faced by the pathogens. In the investigation presented here, we computationally predicted the transcription termination factor rho (TtFRho) inhibitors against Brucella melitensis 16M via a structure-based method. In view the unknown nature of its crystal structure, we constructed a robust three-dimensional homology model of TtFRho’s structure by comparative modeling with the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli TtFRho (Protein Data Bank ID: 1PVO) as a template in MODELLER (v 9.10). The modeled structure was optimized by applying a molecular dynamics simulation for 2 ns with the CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics) 27 force field in NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program; v 2.9) and then evaluated by calculating the stereochemical quality of the protein. The flexible docking for the interaction phenomenon of the template consists of ligand-related inhibitor molecules from the ZINC (ZINC Is Not Commercial) database using a structure-based virtual screening strategy against minimized TtFRho. Docking simulations revealed two inhibitors compounds – ZINC24934545 and ZINC72319544 – that showed high binding affinity among 2,829 drug analogs that bind with key active-site residues; these residues are considered for protein-ligand binding and unbinding pathways via steered molecular dynamics simulations. Arg215 in the model plays an important role in the stability of the protein-ligand complex via a hydrogen bonding interaction by aromatic- π contacts, and the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis of best leads indicate nontoxic in nature with good potential for drug development.

          Most cited references30

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          A solution for the best rotation to relate two sets of vectors

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            CASTp: computed atlas of surface topography of proteins with structural and topographical mapping of functionally annotated residues

            Cavities on a proteins surface as well as specific amino acid positioning within it create the physicochemical properties needed for a protein to perform its function. CASTp () is an online tool that locates and measures pockets and voids on 3D protein structures. This new version of CASTp includes annotated functional information of specific residues on the protein structure. The annotations are derived from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), Swiss-Prot, as well as Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the latter contains information on the variant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are known to cause disease. These annotated residues are mapped to surface pockets, interior voids or other regions of the PDB structures. We use a semi-global pair-wise sequence alignment method to obtain sequence mapping between entries in Swiss-Prot, OMIM and entries in PDB. The updated CASTp web server can be used to study surface features, functional regions and specific roles of key residues of proteins.
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              Dynamic strength of molecular adhesion bonds.

              In biology, molecular linkages at, within, and beneath cell interfaces arise mainly from weak noncovalent interactions. These bonds will fail under any level of pulling force if held for sufficient time. Thus, when tested with ultrasensitive force probes, we expect cohesive material strength and strength of adhesion at interfaces to be time- and loading rate-dependent properties. To examine what can be learned from measurements of bond strength, we have extended Kramers' theory for reaction kinetics in liquids to bond dissociation under force and tested the predictions by smart Monte Carlo (Brownian dynamics) simulations of bond rupture. By definition, bond strength is the force that produces the most frequent failure in repeated tests of breakage, i.e., the peak in the distribution of rupture forces. As verified by the simulations, theory shows that bond strength progresses through three dynamic regimes of loading rate. First, bond strength emerges at a critical rate of loading (> or = 0) at which spontaneous dissociation is just frequent enough to keep the distribution peak at zero force. In the slow-loading regime immediately above the critical rate, strength grows as a weak power of loading rate and reflects initial coupling of force to the bonding potential. At higher rates, there is crossover to a fast regime in which strength continues to increase as the logarithm of the loading rate over many decades independent of the type of attraction. Finally, at ultrafast loading rates approaching the domain of molecular dynamics simulations, the bonding potential is quickly overwhelmed by the rapidly increasing force, so that only naked frictional drag on the structure remains to retard separation. Hence, to expose the energy landscape that governs bond strength, molecular adhesion forces must be examined over an enormous span of time scales. However, a significant gap exists between the time domain of force measurements in the laboratory and the extremely fast scale of molecular motions. Using results from a simulation of biotin-avidin bonds (Izrailev, S., S. Stepaniants, M. Balsera, Y. Oono, and K. Schulten. 1997. Molecular dynamics study of unbinding of the avidin-biotin complex. Biophys. J., this issue), we describe how Brownian dynamics can help bridge the gap between molecular dynamics and probe tests.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                31 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1897-1912
                [1 ]Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India
                [2 ]Biomedical Informatics Centre, Vector Control Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Pondicherry, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Matcha Bhaskar, Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India, Tel +91 877 2243789, Email matchabhaskar2010@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2015 Pradeepkiran et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                brucellosis,rho proteins,transcription inhibitors,smd simulations,admet analysis,therapeutics


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