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      Combined Occurrence of Autosomal Dominant Aniridia and Autosomal Recessive Albinism in Several Members of a Family

      , , , , ,

      Ophthalmic Genetics

      Informa UK Limited

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          Aniridia.

          Aniridia is a rare congenital disorder in which there is a variable degree of hypoplasia or the absence of iris tissue associated with multiple other ocular changes, some present from birth and some arising progressively over time. Most cases are associated with dominantly inherited mutations or deletions of the PAX6 gene. This article will review the clinical manifestations, the molecular basis including genotype-phenotype correlations, diagnostic approaches and management of aniridia.
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            Disruption of autoregulatory feedback by a mutation in a remote, ultraconserved PAX6 enhancer causes aniridia.

            The strictly regulated expression of most pleiotropic developmental control genes is critically dependent on the activity of long-range cis-regulatory elements. This was revealed by the identification of individuals with a genetic condition lacking coding-region mutations in the gene commonly associated with the disease but having a variety of nearby chromosomal abnormalities, collectively described as cis-ruption disease cases. The congenital eye malformation aniridia is caused by haploinsufficiency of the developmental regulator PAX6. We discovered a de novo point mutation in an ultraconserved cis-element located 150 kb downstream from PAX6 in an affected individual with intact coding region and chromosomal locus. The element SIMO acts as a strong enhancer in developing ocular structures. The mutation disrupts an autoregulatory PAX6 binding site, causing loss of enhancer activity, resulting in defective maintenance of PAX6 expression. These findings reveal a distinct regulatory mechanism for genetic disease by disruption of an autoregulatory feedback loop critical for maintenance of gene expression through development. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              DNA variations in oculocutaneous albinism: an updated mutation list and current outstanding issues in molecular diagnostics.

              Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a rare genetic disorder of melanin synthesis that results in hypopigmented hair, skin, and eyes. There are four types of OCA caused by mutations in TYR (OCA-1), OCA2 (OCA-2), TYRP1 (OCA-3), or SLC45A2 (OCA-4). Here we report 22 novel mutations in the OCA genes; 14 from a cohort of 61 patients seen as part of the NIH OCA Natural History Study and eight from a prior study at the University of Minnesota. We also include a comprehensive list of almost 600 previously reported OCA mutations along with ethnicity information, carrier frequencies, and in silico pathogenicity predictions as a supplement. In addition to discussing the clinical and molecular features of OCA, we address the cases of apparent missing heritability. In our cohort, 26% of patients did not have two mutations in a single OCA gene. We demonstrate the utility of multiple detection methods to reveal mutations missed by Sanger sequencing. Finally, we review the TYR p.R402Q temperature-sensitive variant and confirm its association with cases of albinism with only one identifiable TYR mutation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ophthalmic Genetics
                Ophthalmic Genetics
                Informa UK Limited
                1381-6810
                1744-5094
                September 03 2013
                April 03 2015
                February 17 2015
                April 03 2015
                : 36
                : 2
                : 175-179
                Article
                10.3109/13816810.2015.1005318
                © 2015

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