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      Transcriptome responses to heat- and cold-stress in ladybirds ( Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulasnt) analyzed by deep-sequencing

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          Abstract

          Background

          Changed temperature not only threaten agricultural production, but they also affect individual biological behavior, population and community of many insects, and consequently reduce the stability of our ecosystem. Insect’s ability to respond to temperature stress evolved through a complex adaptive process, thus resulting in varied temperature tolerance among different insects. Both high and low extreme temperatures are detrimental to insect development since they constitute an important abiotic stress capable of inducing abnormal biological responses. Many studies on heat or cold tolerance of ladybirds have focused on measurements of physiological and biochemical indexes such as supercooling point, higher/lower lethal temperatures, survival rate, dry body weight, water content, and developmental duration. And studies of the molecular mechanisms of ladybird responses to heat or cold stress have focused on single genes, such as those encoding heat shock proteins, but has not been analyzed by transcriptome profiling.

          Results

          In this study, we report the use of Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling to gain insight into transcriptional events associated with heat- and cold-stress in C. montrouzieri. About 6 million tags (49 bp in length) were sequenced in a heat stress group, a cold stress group and a negative control group. We obtained 687 and 573 genes that showed significantly altered expression levels following heat and cold shock treatments, respectively. Analysis of the global gene expression pattern suggested that 42 enzyme-encoding genes mapped to many Gene Ontology terms are associated with insect’s response to heat- and cold-stress.

          Conclusions

          These results provide a global assessment of genes and molecular mechanisms involved in heat and cold tolerance.

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          Most cited references104

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          Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology.

          Molecular chaperones, including the heat-shock proteins (Hsps), are a ubiquitous feature of cells in which these proteins cope with stress-induced denaturation of other proteins. Hsps have received the most attention in model organisms undergoing experimental stress in the laboratory, and the function of Hsps at the molecular and cellular level is becoming well understood in this context. A complementary focus is now emerging on the Hsps of both model and nonmodel organisms undergoing stress in nature, on the roles of Hsps in the stress physiology of whole multicellular eukaryotes and the tissues and organs they comprise, and on the ecological and evolutionary correlates of variation in Hsps and the genes that encode them. This focus discloses that (a) expression of Hsps can occur in nature, (b) all species have hsp genes but they vary in the patterns of their expression, (c) Hsp expression can be correlated with resistance to stress, and (d) species' thresholds for Hsp expression are correlated with levels of stress that they naturally undergo. These conclusions are now well established and may require little additional confirmation; many significant questions remain unanswered concerning both the mechanisms of Hsp-mediated stress tolerance at the organismal level and the evolutionary mechanisms that have diversified the hsp genes.
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            Deep sequencing-based expression analysis shows major advances in robustness, resolution and inter-lab portability over five microarray platforms

            The hippocampal expression profiles of wild-type mice and mice transgenic for δC-doublecortin-like kinase were compared with Solexa/Illumina deep sequencing technology and five different microarray platforms. With Illumina's digital gene expression assay, we obtained ∼2.4 million sequence tags per sample, their abundance spanning four orders of magnitude. Results were highly reproducible, even across laboratories. With a dedicated Bayesian model, we found differential expression of 3179 transcripts with an estimated false-discovery rate of 8.5%. This is a much higher figure than found for microarrays. The overlap in differentially expressed transcripts found with deep sequencing and microarrays was most significant for Affymetrix. The changes in expression observed by deep sequencing were larger than observed by microarrays or quantitative PCR. Relevant processes such as calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity and vesicle transport along microtubules were found affected by deep sequencing but not by microarrays. While undetectable by microarrays, antisense transcription was found for 51% of all genes and alternative polyadenylation for 47%. We conclude that deep sequencing provides a major advance in robustness, comparability and richness of expression profiling data and is expected to boost collaborative, comparative and integrative genomics studies.
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              Heat shock proteins: modifying factors in physiological stress responses and acquired thermotolerance.

              Cells from virtually all organisms respond to a variety of stresses by the rapid synthesis of a highly conserved set of polypeptides termed heat shock proteins (HSPs). The precise functions of HSPs are unknown, but there is considerable evidence that these stress proteins are essential for survival at both normal and elevated temperatures. HSPs also appear to play a critical role in the development of thermotolerance and protection from cellular damage associated with stresses such as ischemia, cytokines, and energy depletion. These observations suggest that HSPs play an important role in both normal cellular homeostasis and the stress response. This mini-review examines recent evidence and hypotheses suggesting that the HSPs may be important modifying factors in cellular responses to a variety of physiologically relevant conditions such as hyperthermia, exercise, oxidative stress, metabolic challenge, and aging.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhangyuhong1893@qq.com
                wuhongsheng126@126.com
                xjq998@yahoo.cn
                jiangrx85@foxmail.com
                1766285008@qq.com
                phzmfwz@sina.com
                Journal
                Biol Res
                Biol. Res
                Biological Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                0716-9760
                0717-6287
                19 November 2015
                19 November 2015
                2015
                : 48
                : 66
                Affiliations
                [ ]State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275 Guangdong China
                [ ]Guangdong Entomological Institue, Guangzhou, 510260 Guangdong China
                Article
                54
                10.1186/s40659-015-0054-3
                4654012
                26585910
                580bc935-6691-42c6-ad75-bb036a94475f
                © Zhang et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 3 June 2015
                : 30 October 2015
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                coccinellidae,heat tolerance,cold tolerance,digital gene expression

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