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          Bulk purchase of Porcelain materials with some in less use and expiring before being exhausted has resulted in colossal economic loss in the past and present in our environment. Having knowledge of prevalent shade in this environment will minimize this loss.


          The study aimed at auditing the shade selection and identifying the most frequently selected shade for advanced restoration in the Conservative Dentistry Clinic as well as assessing the influence of gender and age on choice of shade selected.


          This is a retrospective study of shade selection for advanced restorations fabricated over a period of seven years in the University College Hospital Dental Clinic spanning January 2009 to December 2016. Data collected which was analyzed using the SPSS Version 22, includes: Socio demographic data, oral hygiene status and social habits, designation of the doctors that took the shade, types of advanced restorations, tooth/teeth restored, shades selected and types of shade guides used if indicated.


          The outcome of the study showed that 'A' group shades were more chosen for advance restorations (50.6%). However, Vita shade A3 was the most selected of all the shades, while shade C4 was the least selected. Lighter shades of 'A' were more frequently selected in female patients (57%) while shade 'D' were chosen in the greater percentage of male patients (60%). Younger age groups less than 45years old tend to have lighter shade selected for their restorations. (Fig. 2).


          Vita shade A3 (3M3) was the most frequently selected shade for aesthetic advanced restoration. Lighter shades are generally selected more in the female patients and younger age group.

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          Direct esthetic restorations based on translucency and opacity of composite resins.

          Light dynamics is a relevant phenomenon with respect to esthetic restorations, as incorrect analysis of the optical behavior of natural dentition may lead to potential clinical failures. The nature of incident light plays a major role in determining the amount of light transmission or reflection, and how an object is perceived depends on the nature of the light source. Natural teeth demonstrate translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence, all of which must be replicated by restorative materials in order to achieve clinical success. Translucency is the intermediary between complete opacity and complete transparency, making its analysis highly subjective. In nature, the translucency of dental enamel varies from tooth to tooth, and from individual to individual. Therefore, four important factors must be considered when appraising translucency. Presence or absence of color, thickness of the enamel, degree of translucency, and surface texture are essential components when determining translucency. State-of-the-art resin composites provide varying shades and opacities that deliver a more faithful reproduction of the chromaticity and translucency/opacity of enamel and dentin. This enables the attainment of individualized and customized composite restorations. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the phenomena of translucency and opacity in the natural dentition and composite resins, under the scope of optics, and to describe how to implement these concepts in the clinical setting. Choosing composite resins, based on optical properties alone, in order to mimic the properties of natural tooth structures, does not necessarily provide a satisfactory esthetic outcome. In many instances, failure ensues from incorrect analysis of the optical behaviors of the natural dentition as well as the improper use of restorative materials. Therefore, it is necessary to implement a technique that enables a restorative material to be utilized to its full potential to correctly replicate the natural teeth. © 2011, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2011, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
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            The prevalence of tooth discolouration and the self-satisfaction with tooth colour in a Chinese urban population.

            To determine the prevalence of tooth discolouration, self-satisfaction with tooth colour, and correlation with socio-demographic-behavioural factors in adults and teenagers in Chengdu, China. A cross-sectional survey. 405 Chinese urban adults and teenagers from a multistage random probability sample. Tooth colour was measured on the maxillary central incisors using a colorimeter. Tooth discolouration was determined according to the discolouration level figure and evaluation criteria. Self-satisfaction with tooth colour was assessed on a five-point qualitative scale. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software. The mean values for L*, a* and b* were 70.67 (s.d. 1.91), 4.29 (s.d. 2.05) and 17.51 (s.d. 4.13), respectively. Age and sex were the most important factors associated with tooth colour (P < 0.05). About half of the study population (48.9%) suffered from some tooth discolouration, and 52.6% were dissatisfied with their tooth colour. Education and smoking were significant factors affecting self-satisfaction with tooth colour (P < 0.05). Tooth discolouration is common among the Chinese, and many Chinese are dissatisfied with their tooth colour. Self-satisfaction with tooth colour decreased with increasing severity of discolouration. Further research is needed to determine types of tooth discolouration among broader regions in China.
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              Color and translucency of in vivo natural central incisors.

              The range of shades in shade guides is not consistent with natural teeth, and there is no information on the color and translucency of the natural tooth for all age groups. Therefore, it is important to obtain a database of the characteristics of the natural tooth from a wide age group. This study obtained information on color and translucency of natural teeth for all age groups, and attempted to clarify the difference of the color and translucency between natural teeth and VITA Lumin Vacuum shade guide. Natural central incisors of 87 subjects (42 men and 45 women; age range from 13 to 84 years) and 16 shades of VITA Lumin Vacuum shade guide were evaluated. Color and translucency of 5 sites, each 1.0 mm in diameter, on the surfaces of individual teeth were measured for L*, a*, and b*, using a color computer according to CIELAB color spaces. At the center site, negative correlation was found between age and L*, with positive correlation between age and b*. Both a* and b* of the natural tooth increased when moving in the direction of the cervical site, but translucency decreased in the direction of the root. The a* value for the natural tooth was significantly higher than those for VITA Lumin Vacuum shade guide. This study found that the older the subject, the darker and more yellow the color at the center site of the natural tooth. Both reddish and yellowish colors of natural teeth tend to increase from the incisal to cervical, whereas translucency decreases. Red-green chromaticity of VITA Lumin Vacuum shade guide was not distributed to cover the natural tooth.

                Author and article information

                Ann Ib Postgrad Med
                Ann Ib Postgrad Med
                Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
                Association of Resident Doctors (ARD), University College Hospital, Ibadan
                December 2019
                : 17
                : 2
                : 157-161
                Department of Restorative Dentistry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. G.E. Adebayo Department of Restorative Dentistry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria E-mail: dradebayogbenga@ 123456gmail.com
                © Association of Resident Doctors, UCH, Ibadan

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                shade selection,shade guide,advance restoration
                shade selection, shade guide, advance restoration


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