Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Bioremediation techniques–classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 136

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications.

       Hazrat Ali,  E. Khan,  M Sajad (2013)
      The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Rhizoremediation: a beneficial plant-microbe interaction.

        Worldwide, contamination of soil and ground water is a severe problem. The negative effects of pollutants on the environment and on human health are diverse and depend on the nature of the pollution. The search for alternative methods for excavation and incineration to clean polluted sites resulted in the application of bioremediation techniques. In this review, we describe some generally accepted bioremediation tools and subsequently focus on the combination of two approaches, phytoremediation and bioaugmentation, resulting in rhizoremediation. During rhizoremediation, exudates derived from the plant can help to stimulate the survival and action of bacteria, which subsequently results in a more efficient degradation of pollutants. The root system of plants can help to spread bacteria through soil and help to penetrate otherwise impermeable soil layers. The inoculation of pollutant-degrading bacteria on plant seed can be an important additive to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or bioaugmentation.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field.

          The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, 500004 Rivers State Nigeria
            Contributors
            chrisbueze1@gmail.com , christopher.azubuike@uniport.edu.ng
            Journal
            World J Microbiol Biotechnol
            World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol
            World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
            Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
            0959-3993
            1573-0972
            16 September 2016
            16 September 2016
            2016
            : 32
            : 11
            27638318
            5026719
            2137
            10.1007/s11274-016-2137-x
            © The Author(s) 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

            Categories
            Review
            Custom metadata
            © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

            Biotechnology

            techniques, bioremediation, environment, pollutants

            Comments

            Comment on this article