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      Hydrous minerals on Mars as seen by the CRISM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers: Updated global view : HYDROUS MINERALS ON MARS: GLOBAL VIEW

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          The operated Markov´s chains in economy (discrete chains of Markov with the income)

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            Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data.

            Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are found in the oldest terrains; sulfates were formed in a second era (the "theiikian" era) in an acidic environment. Beginning about 3.5 billion years ago, the last era (the "siderikian") is dominated by the formation of anhydrous ferric oxides in a slow superficial weathering, without liquid water playing a major role across the planet.
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              Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate.

              The recent identification of large deposits of sulphates by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on the basis of observations by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board the Mars Express spacecraft. These minerals are mainly associated with Noachian outcrops, which is consistent with an early active hydrological system, sustaining the long-term contact of igneous minerals with liquid water. We infer that the two main families of hydrated alteration products detected-phyllosilicates and sulphates--result from different formation processes. These occurred during two distinct climatic episodes: an early Noachian Mars, resulting in the formation of hydrated silicates, followed by a more acidic environment, in which sulphates formed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets
                J. Geophys. Res. Planets
                American Geophysical Union (AGU)
                21699097
                April 2013
                April 2013
                April 24 2013
                : 118
                : 4
                : 831-858
                Affiliations
                [1 ]European Southern Observatory; Santiago Chile
                [2 ]Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale; Universite Paris-Sud; Orsay France
                [3 ]Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes; Universite de Nantes; Nantes France
                [4 ]Applied Physics Laboratory; Laurel Maryland USA
                Article
                10.1029/2012JE004145
                © 2013
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