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      The Leading Concerns of American Women with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Calling Motherisk NVP Helpline

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          Background. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical condition of pregnancy, affecting up to 85% of expecting mothers. In the USA, there is no FDA-approved medication for the treatment of NVP. Objective. To identify the primary concerns of American women leading them to contact the Motherisk NVP Helpline and to characterize the severity of their symptoms and therapy offered in order to develop improved and customized counseling for them. Methods. We reviewed the intake forms of the American women who called the NVP Helpline from 2008 to 2012. We extracted their state of residence, demographic data, severity of NVP symptoms, and other available clinical characteristics. Results. A total of 195 forms were reviewed. Of these, 86% called for information on management of NVP with/without questions about fetal drug safety, while 14% called solely about drug safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding. The majority of women were Caucasian, in their thirties, educated, employed, married and in their second pregnancy. Of them 95% were suffering from moderate-to-severe condition with 13% having hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusion. American women need more information on the management of NVP and on a variety of its aspects in addition to the safety and effectiveness of antiemetic medications. Their leading concern was the use of doxylamine and vitamin B6 combination for NVP treatment followed by the use of ondansetron.

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          Medications used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects.

          Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) occurs in up to 80% of pregnant women, but its association with birth outcomes is not clear. Several medications are used for the treatment of NVP; however, data are limited on their possible associations with birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)-a multi-site, population-based, case-control study-we examined whether NVP or its treatment was associated with the most common noncardiac defects in the NBDPS (nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate [CL/P], cleft palate alone [CP], neural tube defects, and hypospadias) compared with randomly selected nonmalformed live births. Among the 4524 cases and 5859 controls included in this study, 67.1% reported first-trimester NVP, and 15.4% of them reported using at least one agent for NVP. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was not associated with CP or neural tube defects, but modest risk reductions were observed for CL/P (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.98) and hypospadias (aOR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98). Regarding treatments for NVP in the first trimester, the following adjusted associations were observed with an increased risk: proton pump inhibitors and hypospadias (aOR = 4.36; 95% CI, 1.21-15.81), steroids and hypospadias (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.03-7.97), and ondansetron and CP (aOR = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.18-4.76), whereas antacids were associated with a reduced risk for CL/P (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.89). NVP was not observed to be associated with an increased risk of birth defects; however, possible risks related to three treatments (i.e., proton pump inhibitors, steroids and ondansetron), which could be chance findings, warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: using the 24-hour Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE-24) scale.

            With up to 80% of pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), it is critical to have a graded scale of its severity as a guide for appropriate treatment. In 2002 we introduced the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) scoring system, which assessed the severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) based on three physical symptoms: nausea, vomiting, and retching over the previous 12 hours. We present here validation of an extension of the original PUQE, by assessing NVP over 24 hours. This extension is deemed more clinically relevant, because assessment of symptoms over only 12 hours may encompass sleeping hours and hence may not adequately capture the length and severity of the symptoms. In this study we assessed the external validity of the new PUQE-24 by examining its ability to evaluate several characteristics associated with NVP: (a) ability to take multivitamin supplements; (b) rates of hospitalization and emergency room visits for severe symptoms; (c) sleep patterns; (d) liquid intake; and (e) the woman's self-rated well-being scores. Data collected prospectively from 315 women counselled via the Motherisk NVP line were used for the validation. PUQE-24 showed strong correlation with all parameters examined except for sleep patterns and hydration status. The well-being score, however, correlated significantly with hydration status. Capturing 24 hours rather than 12 hours of symptoms may better direct management of NVP and predict its outcome.
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              Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an updated algorithm.

              QUESTIONMy patient has severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). I am having difficulty treating her, as nothing she has tried so far has been really effective. I heard that there is some new information regarding the treatment of this condition.ANSWEREven a less severe case of NVP can have serious adverse effects on the quality of a woman's life, affecting her occupational, social, and domestic functioning, and her general well-being; therefore, it is very important to treat this condition appropriately and effectively. There are safe and effective treatments available. We have updated Motherisk's NVP algorithm to include recent relevant published data, and we describe some other strategies that deal with secondary symptoms related to NVP.

                Author and article information

                Obstet Gynecol Int
                Obstet Gynecol Int
                Obstetrics and Gynecology International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                15 April 2013
                : 2013
                The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Gian Carlo Di Renzo

                Copyright © 2013 Svetlana Madjunkova et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Obstetrics & Gynecology


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