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      Aspectos metodológicos do comportamento ingestivo de cabras lactantes alimentadas com farelo de cacau e torta de dendê Translated title: Methodological aspects of chewing activity of dairy goats fed cocoa meal or palm cake


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          Objetivou-se definir o intervalo de registro do comportamento ingestivo de cabras Saanen lactantes alimentadas com dietas contendo farelo de cacau e torta de dendê em substituição ao concentrado. Ao final de cada período experimental, cinco cabras (41,6 kg de PV) alojadas em baias individuais foram observadas continuamente (24 horas/dia). O concentrado padrão (milho e farelo de soja) foi substituído por 0, 15 e 30% de farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê. O comportamento ingestivo consistiu dos tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Foram testados os intervalos de 10, 15 e 20 minutos contra o registro de observação a intervalos de cinco minutos. O farelo de cacau e a torta de dendê não provocaram alterações no comportamento ingestivo em nenhum dos intervalos avaliados. Não houve diferença entre os tempos médios despendidos em alimentação, ruminação e ócio nos diferentes intervalos de tempo avaliados, indicando que os animais podem ser observados a intervalos de até 20 minutos.

          Translated abstract

          The objective of this trial was to compare different time intervals of chewing activity observation on lactating Saanen goats receiving diets containing cocoa meal or palm cake. Five goats averaging 41.6 of body weight were housed in individual pens and fed a diet containing corn and soybean meal as concentrate or diets in which corn and soybean meal was partially replaced by 15 and 30% of cocoa meal or palm cake (% DM). A 5 x 5 Latin square with 13 days for adaptation and two days for data collection was used. Chewing activities included time spent eating, ruminating and idle. Intervals of 10, 15 and 20 minutes of chewing activity observation were compared against the standard approach: observation at every five minutes. Increasing levels of cocoa meal or palm cake in the diet did not significantly change chewing behavior at any time interval. No significant difference was observed on the mean time spent eating, ruminating and idle at the different time intervals indicating that chewing activity of dairy goats fed increasing levels of dietary cocoa meal or palm cake can be measured at every 20 minutes rather than at every five minutes intervals.

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          Most cited references28

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          Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant

          This monumental text-reference places in clear persepctive the importance of nutritional assessments to the ecology and biology of ruminants and other nonruminant herbivorous mammals. Now extensively revised and significantly expanded, it reflects the changes and growth in ruminant nutrition and related ecology since 1982. Among the subjects Peter J. Van Soest covers are nutritional constraints, mineral nutrition, rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, utilization of fibrous carbohydrates, application of ruminant precepts to fermentive digestion in nonruminants, as well as taxonomy, evolution, nonruminant competitors, gastrointestinal anatomies, feeding behavior, and problems fo animal size. He also discusses methods of evaluation, nutritive value, physical struture and chemical composition of feeds, forages, and broses, the effects of lignification, and ecology of plant self-protection, in addition to metabolism of energy, protein, lipids, control of feed intake, mathematical models of animal function, digestive flow, and net energy. Van Soest has introduced a number of changes in this edition, including new illustrations and tables. He places nutritional studies in historical context to show not only the effectiveness of nutritional approaches but also why nutrition is of fundamental importance to issues of world conservation. He has extended precepts of ruminant nutritional ecology to such distant adaptations as the giant panda and streamlined conceptual issues in a clearer logical progression, with emphasis on mechanistic causal interrelationships. Peter J. Van Soest is Professor of Animal Nutrition in the Department of Animal Science and the Division of Nutritional Sciences at the New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University.
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            Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows.

            Current NRC recommendations for dairy cattle provide limited guidance to nutritionists for meeting the fiber and carbohydrate needs of lactating cows. The NRC provide only minimum recommendations for fiber and no accommodation for factors such as physical effectiveness of fiber, interactions with nonfibrous carbohydrates, or animal attributes, which can affect the optimality of dairy rations. To be an improvement, any new system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows must be based on 1) feed characteristics that can be defined and preferably be determined quantitatively using routine laboratory methods and 2) animal requirements that correspond to critical feed characteristics and vary with feeding situation, ration composition, and attributes of the animal. Published data were used to develop coefficients for defining the physical effectiveness or roughage value of feeds and the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Information in this paper is intended to provide practical guidelines for improving current fiber recommendations and to serve as an idealized framework for future research on meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. The system is based on NDF as the measure of total chemical fiber in feeds. Adjustments for the effectiveness of NDF in maintaining milk fat production and optimizing ruminal fermentation are based on the particle size and inherent characteristics of NDF that affect chewing activity, ruminal pH, and milk fat production.
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              Comportamento ingestivo em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado

              RESUMO - Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado sobre o comportamento ingestivo foram estudados com cinco bezerros holandeses, inteiros, com idade e peso corporal médios iniciais de 10,8±0,8 meses e 233,4±26,1 kg PV. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90% de concentrado, com base na MS. As rações contendo, aproximadamente, 16% PB foram formuladas para taxa de ganho de peso de 1,0 kg/dia e compostas por farelo de soja, fubá de milho e feno de capim coast-cross. O delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos, com duração de 20 dias, 12 dias de adaptação e quatro períodos de dois dias, relativos à coleta de dados foi usado. O tempo despendido em alimentação e ruminação diminuiu, e o tempo de ócio aumentou linearmente, em função do aumento dos níveis de concentrado. A eficiência de alimentação em g MS/h registrou comportamento quadrático, estimando-se o valor máximo em 826,81 g FDN/h, para o nível de 60,77% de concentrado. A elevação no nível de concentrado nas dietas aumentou linearmente a eficiência de ruminação em g MS/h, mas em g FDN/h decresceu linearmente. O número de bolos ruminais e de mastigações merícicas por dia decresceu linearmente. O número e o tempo de mastigação merícica por bolo registraram comportamento quadrático, estimando-se valores máximos de 73,79 mastigações e 66,61 segundos, por bolo ruminal, para os níveis de 48,51 e 54,44% de concentrado, respectivamente.

                Author and article information

                Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
                R. Bras. Zootec.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                February 2007
                : 36
                : 1
                : 103-110
                [01] Viçosa MG orgnameUFV
                [02] Itapetinga BA orgnameUESB orgdiv1Departamento de Tecnologia Rural e Animal
                [03] Itapetinga BA orgnameUESB orgdiv1Departamento de Estudos Básicos e Instrumentais
                [04] Maringá PR orgnameUEM
                S1516-35982007000100013 S1516-3598(07)03600113

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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