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      Acne phototherapy with a 1450-nm diode laser: an open study

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of phototherapy with a newly-developed 1450-nm diode laser in patients with mild to moderate acne. An open study was performed in acne patients who were treated up to five times with a two week interval. Acne lesions were reduced by 63%. Only one patient discontinued treatment due to vesicle formation as an adverse effect. Phototherapy using this diode laser source was effective and well tolerated in acne patients, suggesting that this phototherapy may be a new modality for the treatment of acne.

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          Most cited references 18

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          5-Aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy. Clinical research and future challenges.

          Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer patients has developed into an important new clinical treatment modality in the past 25-years. PDT involves administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizer or photosensitizer prodrug (5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA], a precursor in the heme biosynthetic pathway) and the subsequent activation of the photosensitizer by light. Although several photosensitizers other than ALA-derived protoprophyrin IX (PpIX) have been used in clinical PDT, ALA-based PDT has been the most active area of clinical PDT research during the past 5 years. Studies have shown that a higher accumulation of ALA-derived PpIX in rapidly proliferating cells may provide a biologic rationale for clinical use of ALA-based PDT and diagnosis. However, no review updating the clinical data has appeared so far. A review of recently published data on clinical ALA-based PDT and diagnosis was conducted. Several individual studies in which patients with primary nonmelanoma cutaneous tumors received topical ALA-based PDT have reported promising results, including outstanding cosmetic results. However, the modality with present protocols does not in general, appear to be superior to conventional therapies with respect to initial complete response rates and long term recurrence rates, particularly in the treatment of nodular skin tumors. Topical ALA-PDT does have the following advantages over conventional treatments: it is noninvasive; it produces excellent cosmetic results; it is well tolerated by patients; it can be used to treat multiple superficial lesions in short treatment sessions; it can be applied to patients who refuse surgery or have pacemakers and bleeding tendency; it can be used to treat lesions in specific locations, such as the oral mucosa or the genital area; it can be used as a palliative treatment; and it can be applied repeatedly without cumulative toxicity. Topical ALA-PDT also has potential as a treatment for nonneoplastic skin diseases. Systemic administration of ALA does not seem to be severely toxic, but the advantage of using this approach for PDT of superficial lesions of internal hollow organs is still uncertain. The ALA-derived porphyrin fluorescence technique would be useful in the diagnosis of superficial lesions of internal hollow organs. Promising results of ALA-based clinical PDT and diagnosis have been obtained. The modality has advantages over conventional treatments. However, some improvements need to be made, such as optimization of parameters of ALA-based PDT and diagnosis; increased tumor selectivity of ALA-derived PpIX; better understanding of light distribution in tissue: improvement of light dosimetry procedure; and development of simpler, cheaper, and more efficient light delivery systems.
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            Topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

            Topical aminolevulinic acid is converted into a potent photosensitizer, protoporphyrin, in human hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Photodynamic therapy with topical aminolevulinic acid was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris, in an open-label prospective human study. Each of 22 subjects with acne on the back was treated in four sites with aminolevulinic acid plus red light, aminolevulinic acid alone, light alone, and untreated control. Half of the subjects were treated once; half were treated four times. Twenty percent topical aminolevulinic acid was applied with 3 h occlusion, and 150 J per cm2 broad-band light (550-700 nm) was given. Sebum excretion rate and auto-fluorescence from follicular bacteria were measured before, and 2, 3, 10, and 20 wk after, treatment. Histologic changes and protoporphyrin synthesis in pilosebaceous units were observed from skin biopsies. Aminolevulinic acid plus red light caused a transient acne-like folliculitis. Sebum excretion was eliminated for several weeks, and decreased for 20 wk after photodynamic therapy; multiple treatments caused greater suppression of sebum. Bacterial porphyrin fluorescence was also suppressed by photodynamic therapy. On histology, sebaceous glands showed acute damage and were smaller 20 wk after photodynamic therapy. There was clinical and statistically significant clearance of inflammatory acne by aminolevulinic acid plus red light, for at least 20 wk after multiple treatments and 10 wk after a single treatment. Transient hyperpigmentation, superficial exfoliation, and crusting were observed, which cleared without scarring. Topical aminolevulinic acid plus red light is an effective treatment of acne vulgaris, associated with significant side-effects. Aminolevulinic acid plus red light causes phototoxicity to sebaceous follicles, prolonged suppression of sebaceous gland function, and apparent decrease in follicular bacteria after photodynamic therapy. Potentially, aminolevulinic acid plus red light may be useful for some patients with acne.
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              Phototherapy with blue (415 nm) and red (660 nm) light in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

              In this study we have evaluated the use of blue light (peak at 415 nm) and a mixed blue and red light (peaks at 415 and 660 nm) in the treatment of acne vulgaris. One hundred and seven patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were randomized into four treatment groups: blue light, mixed blue and red light, cool white light and 5% benzoyl peroxide cream. Subjects in the phototherapy groups used portable light sources and irradiation was carried out daily for 15 min. Comparative assessment between the three light sources was made in an observer-blinded fashion, but this could not be achieved for the use of benzoyl peroxide. Assessments were performed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks of active treatment a mean improvement of 76% (95% confidence interval 66-87) in inflammatory lesions was achieved by the combined blue-red light phototherapy; this was significantly superior to that achieved by blue light (at weeks 4 and 8 but not week 12), benzoyl peroxide (at weeks 8 and 12) or white light (at each assessment). The final mean improvement in comedones by using blue-red light was 58% (95% confidence interval 45-71), again better than that achieved by the other active treatments used, although the differences did not reach significant levels. We have found that phototherapy with mixed blue-red light, probably by combining antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action, is an effective means of treating acne vulgaris of mild to moderate severity, with no significant short-term adverse effects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                March 2007
                March 2007
                : 3
                : 1
                : 205-209
                Affiliations
                Department of Dermatology, Kinki University School of Medicine Ohno-Higashi 377-2, Osaka-Sayama city, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Natsuko Konishi Department of Dermatology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Ohno-Higashi 377-2, Osaka-Sayama city, Osaka 589-8511, Japan Tel +81 72 366 0221 Fax +81 72 368 2120 Email hifui@ 123456med.kindai.ac.jp
                Article
                1936301
                18360628
                © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                sebaceous gland, acne vulgaris, phototherapy, 1450-nm diode laser

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