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Reconstrução em Movimento: Impactos do Terremoto de 2010 em Imigrantes Haitianos Translated title: Reconstrucción en Movimiento: Impactos del Terremoto de 2010 en Inmigrantes Haitianos Translated title: Reconstruction in Movement: 2010 Earthquake Impacts on Haitian Immigrants

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      Abstract

      Resumo A cultura oferece rituais e discursos que orientam o indivíduo, inclusive nos acontecimentos que excedem as possibilidades imediatas de representação psíquica, os eventos traumáticos. Em janeiro de 2010, o Haiti foi atingido por um terremoto com proporções catastróficas. A dificuldade do país em responder ao ocorrido, que agravou a situação precária da maioria de sua população, levou muitos haitianos a emigrarem, sendo o Brasil um dos destinos – ainda que provisório. O processo migratório, principalmente nas migrações involuntárias, implica em diversas mudanças e pode levar o sujeito a um estado de vulnerabilidade psíquica, pois muito daquilo que o orientava em sua existência é ameaçado pelo contato com a cultura diferente. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi analisar quais os impactos psicológicos do terremoto que, além de levar a experiência do imprevisível pelo evento em si, foi seguido de uma migração necessária para a continuidade e reconstrução da vida. De natureza qualitativa e exploratória, o procedimento de coleta de informações se deu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Aplicou-se a análise de conteúdo das narrativas, orientada pelo olhar psicanalítico e etnopsiquiátrico. Os resultados demonstram que a lembrança traumática, as perdas de pessoas próximas, a casa, o trabalho e a educação foram acrescidos às dificuldades de uma migração que, apesar de facilitada legalmente, é vivida com dificuldade de integração pela maioria desses sujeitos. Em contrapartida, o desejo de reconstrução da história individual e coletiva apresenta-se como importante força na vida dessas pessoas que, mesmo a distância, procuram compartilhar projetos com os conterrâneos.

      Translated abstract

      Resumen La cultura ofrece rituales y discursos que orientan al sujeto, inclusive en los eventos traumáticos, que son acontecimientos que exceden las posibilidades inmediatas de representación psíquica. En enero de 2011, Haití fue tomado por un terremoto con proporciones catastróficas. La dificultad del país en responder a lo ocurrido agravó la situación precaria de la mayor parte de su populación, motivando la emigración de muchos haitianos, siendo Brasil uno de los destinos – aunque provisorio. El proceso migratorio, principalmente el de las migraciones involuntarias, implica diversas mudanzas y puede llevar al sujeto a un estado de vulnerabilidad psíquica, puesto que aquello que lo orientaba en su existencia es amenazado por el contacto con una cultura diferente. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar cuáles son los impactos psicológicos del terremoto que, más allá de llevar la experiencia de lo imprevisible por el evento en sí, fue seguido de una migración necesaria para la continuidad y reconstrucción de vida. De naturaleza cualitativa y exploratoria, el procedimiento de colecta de informaciones en este estudio fue realizado por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Fue aplicado el análisis de contenidos a los discursos, orientado por las perspectivas psicoanalítica y etnopsiquiátrica. Los resultados demuestran que la recordación de eventos traumáticos, la pérdida de personas cercanas, casa, trabajo y educación fueron acrecentadas a las dificultades de una migración que, a pesar de ser facilitada legalmente, es experimentada con dificultad de integración por la mayoría de los participantes de este estudio. En contrapartida, el deseo de reconstrucción de la historia individual y colectiva aparece como una importante fuerza en la vida de estas personas que, aún en la distancia, buscan compartir proyectos con los coterráneos.

      Translated abstract

      Abstract Culture provides rituals and discourses that guide the individual, including in events that exceed the immediate possibilities of psychological representation, the traumatic ones. In January 2010 Haiti was hit by an earthquake with catastrophic proportions. The difficulty that the country had to respond to what happened aggravated the precarious situation of the majority of its population, leading many Haitians to emigrate, with Brazil as one of the destinations - albeit temporary. The migration process, especially in the involuntary migration, involves several changes and can lead the individual to a mental state of vulnerability, once much of what guided one in his or her existence is threatened by the contact with a different culture. The aim of this study was to analyze which are the psychological impacts due an earthquake that, in addition to bringing the experience of the unpredictable event itself, was followed by a migration required for the continuity and reconstruction of life. From qualitative and exploratory nature, the procedure to collect data was performed through semi-structured interviews. Content analysis of the narratives was carried out, guided by the psychoanalytic and ethnopsychiatric approaches. The results show that the traumatic memory, the loss of close persons, home, work and education were added to the difficulties of a migration that, although legally facilitated, is experienced with difficulty to integration for the majority of these individuals. On the other hand, the desire for reconstruction of individual and collective history presents itself as a major force in the lives of people who, even distant, seek to share projects with their compatriots.

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      Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study

      Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who survived the tragedy.
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        Fatores de risco e de proteção para o uso de drogas na adolescência

        Este artigo apresenta uma visão compreensiva da complexidade dos fatores de risco e de proteção para o uso de drogas na adolescência. Discorre sobre a interdependência dos diversos contextos - individual, familiar, escolar, grupo de pares, midiático e comunidade de convivência - propícios tanto ao risco quanto à proteção ao uso das drogas lícitas e ilícitas, fornecendo, por último, algumas estratégias de prevenção.
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          Refugees, trauma and Adversity-Activated Development

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Santa Catarina orgnameUniversidade Federal de Santa Catarina Brazil
            Santa Catarina orgnameUniversidade Federal de Santa Catarina Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            pcp
            Psicologia: ciência e profissão
            Psicol. cienc. prof.
            Conselho Federal de Psicologia (Brasília, DF, Brazil )
            1414-9893
            March 2018
            : 38
            : 1
            : 157-171
            S1414-98932018000100157 10.1590/1982-3703003122016

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 15
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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