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      EL CONSUMO DE TOMATES PREVIENE EL DESARROLLO DE ENFERMEDADES CARDIOVASCULARES Y CÁNCER: ANTECEDENTES EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS Y MECANISMOS DE ACCIÓN Translated title: TOMATO CONSUMPTION PREVENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS AND CANCER: EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANTECEDENTS AND ACTION MECHANISMS

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          Abstract

          Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), especialmente las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y el cáncer, representan un importante problema de salud pública. Una de las estrategias para revertir esta situación es incrementar el consumo de frutas y hortalizas. Por lo anterior, esta revisión muestra los hallazgos epidemiológicos y mecanismos por los cuales la ingesta de tomate podría prevenir el desarrollo de ECV y cáncer. El tomate, rico en licopeno, es la hortaliza de mayor consumo a nivel mundial y la que más se cultiva en Chile. Desde la década de los noventa, varios estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado que el consumo de tomate puede prevenir el desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares (infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedad cerebro vascular) y ciertos tipos de cáncer. Respecto a los mecanismos protectores de ECV se ha observado que el tomate presenta actividades antiplaquetaria, protectora del endotelio, antioxidante y antiaterogénica. Por su parte, entre los mecanismos por los cuales puede prevenir el cáncer, se han descrito las siguientes actividades: antioxidante, activación de apoptosis, disminución de la proliferación celular y disminución de la angiogenesis y metástasis. A futuro será necesario avanzar en el conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares involucrados (células, receptores y vías de señalización). Por otra parte, teniendo en consideración el aporte del tomate y sus productos en la prevención de las ENT, junto con incrementar las campañas sobre consumo interno y exportación, será fundamental idear nuevos alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos.

          Translated abstract

          Non-transmissible diseases (NTDs), especially cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, are a major public health problem. One strategy to reverse this situation is to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. For these reasons, this review shows the epidemiological findings and mechanisms by which tomato intake may prevent the development of CVD and cancer. The tomato rich in lycopene is the most consumed vegetable in the world and the main crop in Chile. Since the nineties, several epidemiological studies have shown that tomato consumption may prevent the development of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease) and certain types of cancers. Regarding the protective mechanisms of CVD, it has been observed that the tomato has antiplatelet activity, endothelial protective, antioxidant and antiatherogenic. Meanwhile, among the mechanisms by which it can prevent cancer has described the following activities: antioxidant, activation of apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis and diminution of metastasis. In future it is necessary to advance the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved (cells, receptors and signaling pathways). Also, taking into consideration the contribution of the tomato and its products in the prevention of NTD, along with the outstanding campaigns to increase domestic consumption and export, it will be essential to devise new functional foods and nutraceuticals food.

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          Most cited references87

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          Mechanism of action and in vivo role of platelet-derived growth factor.

          Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a major mitogen for connective tissue cells and certain other cell types. It is a dimeric molecule consisting of disulfide-bonded, structurally similar A- and B-polypeptide chains, which combine to homo- and heterodimers. The PDGF isoforms exert their cellular effects by binding to and activating two structurally related protein tyrosine kinase receptors, denoted the alpha-receptor and the beta-receptor. Activation of PDGF receptors leads to stimulation of cell growth, but also to changes in cell shape and motility; PDGF induces reorganization of the actin filament system and stimulates chemotaxis, i.e., a directed cell movement toward a gradient of PDGF. In vivo, PDGF has important roles during the embryonic development as well as during wound healing. Moreover, overactivity of PDGF has been implicated in several pathological conditions. The sis oncogene of simian sarcoma virus (SSV) is related to the B-chain of PDGF, and SSV transformation involves autocrine stimulation by a PDGF-like molecule. Similarly, overproduction of PDGF may be involved in autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of human tumors. Overactivity of PDGF has, in addition, been implicated in nonmalignant conditions characterized by an increased cell proliferation, such as atherosclerosis and fibrotic conditions. This review discusses structural and functional properties of PDGF and PDGF receptors, the mechanism whereby PDGF exerts its cellular effects, and the role of PDGF in normal and diseased tissues.
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            Antioxidants in photosynthesis and human nutrition.

            The harnessing of solar energy by photosynthesis depends on a safety valve that effectively eliminates hazardous excess energy and prevents oxidative damage to the plant cells. Many of the compounds that protect plant cells also protect human cells. Improving plant resistance to stress may thus have the beneficial side effect of also improving the nutritional quality of plants in the human diet. The pathways that synthesize these compounds are becoming amenable to genetic manipulation, which may yield benefits as widespread as improved plant stress tolerance and improved human physical and mental health.
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              IMPROVING THE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTS TO ENHANCE HUMAN NUTRITION AND HEALTH1.

              Plant foods contain almost all of the mineral and organic nutrients established as essential for human nutrition, as well as a number of unique organic phytochemicals that have been linked to the promotion of good health. Because the concentrations of many of these dietary constituents are often low in edible plant sources, research is under way to understand the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to their transport, synthesis and accumulation in plants. This knowledge can be used to develop strategies with which to manipulate crop plants, and thereby improve their nutritional quality. Improvement strategies will differ between various nutrients, but generalizations can be made for mineral or organic nutrients. This review focuses on the plant nutritional physiology and biochemistry of two essential human nutrients, iron and vitamin E, to provide examples of the type of information that is needed, and the strategies that can be used, to improve the mineral or organic nutrient composition of plants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                idesia
                Idesia (Arica)
                Idesia
                Universidad de Tarapacá. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas (Arica, , Chile )
                0718-3429
                December 2010
                : 28
                : 3
                : 121-129
                Affiliations
                [03] orgnameUniversidad de Talca orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias orgdiv2Departamento de Economía Chile
                [02] orgnameUniversidad de Talca orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias orgdiv2Departamento de Horticultura Chile
                [01] orgnameUniversidad de Talca orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunohematología Chile
                Article
                S0718-34292010000300016 S0718-3429(10)02800300016
                10.4067/S0718-34292010000300016
                5841e77a-c92e-4eff-bf2a-c253cdfa73e7

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 14 December 2009
                : 30 October 2009
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 9
                Product

                SciELO Chile

                Categories
                COMENTARIO DE ACTUALIDAD

                Tomato,cardiovascular diseases,cancer,antioxidants,Tomate,enfermedades cardiovasculares,cáncer,antioxidantes

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