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      Clinicopathological Characteristics and Outcome of Adult Patients with Hematuria and/or Proteinuria Found during Routine Examination

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          Abstract

          Background: Patients with hematuria and/or proteinuria found during routine examination are commonly encountered. To define the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of these patients, 142 patients with definite pathological diagnosis were studied retrospectively. Methods: All the 142 patients were divided into three groups: pure hematuria (HU, n = 13), concomitant hematuria and proteinuria (HUPU, n = 79), and proteinuria alone (PU, n = 50). Results: At the time of renal biopsy, 26% of the patients had renal insufficiency and 48% of the patients had hypertension. Pathologically, IgA nephropathy (n = 67) was the most common. A total of 51 patients were enrolled into the follow-up group. Finally, urinary abnormalities disappeared in 18% of the patients, 22% of HU developed proteinuria, 21% of HUPU and 23% of PU appeared to have a distinct increase of proteinuria, and 15% of PU developed hematuria. Seven patients with normal blood pressure before became hypertensive and 6% of the patients with normal renal function initially developed renal insufficiency. The renal outcome was associated with proteinuria and tubulointerstitial lesions. Conclusion: Because renal pathologic change does not always coincide with clinical manifestations, patients with hematuria and/or proteinuria found during routine examination do not necessarily imply a favorable outcome, so renal biopsy is quite important. Besides, early treatment and careful follow-up are helpful in these patients.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies.

           T Bertani,  G. Remuzzi (1998)
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            Natural history of idiopathic IgA nephropathy: role of clinical and histological prognostic factors.

             G D'Amico (2000)
            Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy is characterized by an extreme variability in clinical course and sometimes by the unpredictability of the ultimate outcome. Among the numerous studies published in the last 15 years that have calculated the actuarial renal survival and tried to individuate the prognostic role of the clinical and histological features present at the onset of the disease or the time of biopsy, we chose to analyze critically the results of the most valid (30 studies). Actuarial renal survival at 10 years in adults was between 80% and 85% in most of the European and Asian studies, but it was less in studies from the United States and exceeded 90% in the few studies of children. Concordance existed in this selected literature that impairment of renal function, severe proteinuria, and arterial hypertension are the strongest and more reliable clinical predictors of an unfavorable outcome. However, analysis of the prognostic value of morphological lesions was more difficult because they have been characterized in some studies using an overall score or histological classes of progressively more severe involvement and, in others, using a semiquantitative grading of individual glomerular, tubular, interstitial, and vascular changes. In adult patients, a high score of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, corresponding to classes IV and V of the Lee or Haas classifications, predicted a more rapid progression. When single lesions were analyzed separately, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis appeared to be the strongest, most reliable predictors of unfavorable prognosis. More controversial was the role of crescents and capsular adhesions. None of the immunohistological features was found to be a risk factor for progression in the more accurate statistical analyses. The same histological features predicted outcome in children, although the severity of lesions at the time of biopsy was usually less than that in adults. However, in the single patient, even the evaluation of these prognostic markers sometimes fails to correctly predict outcome, probably because of the heterogeneity of the disease and the discontinuous activity of some injuring mechanisms during its course.
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              Renoprotective properties of ACE-inhibition in non-diabetic nephropathies with non-nephrotic proteinuria.

              Stratum 2 of the Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy (REIN) study has already shown that in patients with chronic nephropathies and proteinuria of 3 g or more per 24 h, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition reduced the rate of decline in glomerular filtration and halved the combined risk of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal failure (ESRF) found in controls on placebo plus conventional antihypertensives. In REIN stratum 1, reported here, 24 h proteinuria was 1 g or more but less than 3 g per 24 h. In stratum 1 of this double-blind trial 186 patients were randomised to a ramipril or a control (placebo plus conventional antihypertensive therapy) group targeted at achieving a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. The primary endpoints were change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and time to ESRF or overt proteinuria (> or =53 g/24 h). Median follow-up was 31 months. The decline in GFR per month was not significantly different (ramipril 0.26 [SE 0.05] mL per min per 1.73m2, control 0.29 [0.06]). Progression to ESRF was significantly less common in the ramipril group (9/99 vs 18/87) for a relative risk (RR) of 2.72 (95% CI 1.22-6.08); so was progression to overt proteinuria (15/99 vs 27/87, RR 2.40 [1.27-4.52]). Patients with a baseline GFR of 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less and proteinuria of 1.5 g/24 h or more had more rapid progression and gained the most from ramipril treatment. Proteinuria decreased by 13% in the ramipril group and increased by 15% in the controls. Cardiovascular events were similar. As expected, the rate of decline in GFR and the frequency of ESRF were much lower in stratum 1 than they had been in stratum 2. In non-diabetic nephropathies, ACE inhibition confers renoprotection even to patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                July 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 103
                : 4
                : c149-c156
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and bDepartment of Nephrology, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Article
                92912 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;103:c149–c156
                10.1159/000092912
                16636583
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92912
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