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      The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

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          Abstract

          Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it.

          Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach.

          Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality.

          Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

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          Most cited references21

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          Prostate cancer and supportive care: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of men's experiences and unmet needs

          Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (www.globocan.iarc.fr). Currently, there is a lack of specific guidance on supportive care for men with prostate cancer. This article describes a qualitative systematic review and synthesis examining men's experience of and need for supportive care. Seven databases were searched; 20 journal articles were identified and critically appraised. A thematic synthesis was conducted in which descriptive themes were drawn out of the data. These were peer support, support from partner, online support, cancer specialist nurse support, self‐care, communication with health professionals, unmet needs (emotional support, information needs, support for treatment‐induced side effects of incontinence and erectile dysfunction) and men's suggestions for improved delivery of supportive care. This was followed by the development of overarching analytic themes which were: uncertainty, reframing, and the timing of receiving treatment, information and support. Our results show that the most valued form of support men experienced following diagnosis was one‐to‐one peer support and support from partners. This review highlights the need for improved access to cancer specialist nurses throughout the care pathway, individually tailored supportive care and psychosexual support for treatment side effects.
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            Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer.

            We explored the experiences of Bahraini women who have survived breast cancer and their perception of quality of life after diagnosis. We conducted in depth, semi-structured face-to-face interviews with twelve women diagnosed with breast cancer. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews on a purposive sample of 12 Bahraini women with breast cancer was conducted. Similarities and differences in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts using a constant comparative approach. The themes identified were meaning of cancer and quality of life, spirituality and beliefs about causes of breast cancer, coping mechanisms, impact of illness and change in relationships. Quality of life was framed in terms of the ability to perform daily duties with emphasis on the physical component of quality of life. Themes that differed from previous western studies included a heavy emphasis on spiritual practices for comfort; the use of traditional clothing (hijab and abaya) to hide hair and body changes; the important role played by the family and husband in treatment decisions and concerns regarding satisfying the sexual needs of the husband, which were related to a fear of losing the husband to a second wife. Evil eye, stress and God's punishment were believed to be fundamental causes of the disease. The emotional shock of the initial diagnosis, concerns about whether to reveal the diagnosis and a desire to live a normal life were consistent with previous studies. However, cultural and religious issues such as role of the husband and impact of prayers were also important here. These themes are important to healthcare professionals for ensuring an individualized approach to the treatment of women with breast cancer.
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              Living with cancer-related uncertainty: associations with fatigue, insomnia, and affect in younger breast cancer survivors.

              Uncertainty in cancer patients and survivors about cancer-related symptoms, treatment, and disease course has been related to poorer mental and physical health. However, little is known about whether cancer-related uncertainty relates with specific disease and treatment-related outcomes such as fatigue, insomnia, and affect disruptions. In this paper, we report these associations in younger survivors aged 50 years or less, a population increasing in prevalence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Caring Sci
                J Caring Sci
                J Caring Sci
                JCS
                TBZMED
                Journal of Caring Sciences
                Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
                2251-9920
                March 2016
                01 March 2016
                : 5
                : 1
                : 43-55
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                2 Department of Nursing, Department of Midwifery And Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                3Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                4Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Sepideh Hajian (PhD), email: Hajian74@ 123456yahoo.com This study was approved and funded by the deputy of research of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Project number: 74).
                Article
                10.15171/jcs.2016.005
                4794544
                26989665
                5850286b-7fa9-4afa-b9fb-8070b9a26c4a
                Copyright © 2016 by The Author(s)

                This work is published by Journal of Caring Sciences as an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 29 May 2015
                : 17 September 2015
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Article

                breast cancer,lived experience,women
                breast cancer, lived experience, women

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