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      Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

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          Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations.


          The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period.

          Material and Methods

          All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records.


          A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004).


          The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Cancer incidence rates among South Asians in four geographic regions: India, Singapore, UK and US.

          Data are limited regarding cancer incidence among Indians residing in different geographic regions around the world. Examining such rates may provide us with insights into future aetiological research possibilities as well as screening and prevention. Incidence rates for all cancers combined and 19 specific cancers were obtained for India from Globocan 2002, for Indians in Singapore from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (VIII), and from national data sources for South Asians (SA) in the United Kingdom (UK) and for Asian Indians/Pakistanis (AIP) and whites in the United States (US). We observed the lowest total cancer incidence rates in India (111 and 116 per 100,000 among males and females, respectively, age-standardized to the 1960 world population) and the highest among US whites (362 and 296). Cancer incidence rates among Indians residing outside of India were: intermediate Singapore (102 and 132), UK (173 and 179) and US ranges 152-176 and 142-164. A similar pattern was observed for cancers of the colorectum, prostate, thyroid, pancreas, lung, breast and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In contrast, rates for cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus, larynx and cervix uteri were highest in India. Although little geographic variability was apparent for stomach cancer incidence, Indians in Singapore had the highest rates compared with any other region. The UK SA and the US AIP appear with adopt the cancer patterns of their host country. Variations in environmental exposures such as tobacco use, diet and infection, as well as better health care access and knowledge may explain some of the observed incidence differences.
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            Prognostic value of clinicopathological parameters and outcome in 484 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: microvascular invasion (V+) is an independent prognostic factor for OSCC.

             Jochen Grimm (2012)
            Several clinicopathological parameters have been implicated in prognosis, recurrence and survival, following oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the outcome of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated at a single institution by primary surgical resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy, or brachytherapy and to identify the factors affecting survival and locoregional control. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 429 consecutive patients after primary radical R0 tumor resection and 55 patients after brachytherapy in our department between 1997 and 2010. OSCC pathological parameters were analyzed including age, gender, site distribution, tumor size, lymph node involvement, grading, microvascular invasion, lymphatic vessel involvement, and distant metastasis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable and survival was calculated using the univariate Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were analyzed using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Average tumor size was 10.9 mm (95 % CI for the mean 9.6-12.3). Disease-free survival at 5 years was 65 % and overall 5-year survival was 62 %. On univariate analysis, patients with increased tumor size, lymph node involvement, microvascular invasion, and lymphatic vessel involvement had a significant poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that independent prognostic factors were increased tumor size and microvascular invasion. This hospital-based retrospective cohort study points out different clinicopathological prognostic factors of survival in a large patient cohort treated for OSCC. It highlights increased tumor size and microvascular invasion as the most independent prognostic factors in predicting survival in patients with OSCC.
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              World Health Organization classification of tumors - pathology & genetics - head and neck tumors


                Author and article information

                J Appl Oral Sci
                J Appl Oral Sci
                J. Appl. Oral. Sci.
                Journal of Applied Oral Science
                Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru da Universidade de São Paulo
                Sep-Oct 2013
                : 21
                : 5
                : 460-467
                Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
                Author notes
                Corresponding address: Fábio Ramôa Pires - Departamento de Patologia Bucal, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Av. 28 de Setembro, 157 - Vila Isabel - 20551-030 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil - Phone/fax: + 55 21 2868-8284 - e-mail: ramoafop@ 123456yahoo.com

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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