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      Differential Activity of Stanniocalcin in Male and Female Fresh Water Teleost Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) during Gonadal Maturation

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          The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in the activity of hormone stanniocalcin (STC) between male and female fishes of Mastacembelus armatus during their gonadal cycle. A large variation in nuclear diameter of cells of corpuscles of Stannius (CS) were recorded in relation to testicular cycle as well as ovarian cycle which indicates that the cellular activity varied with different phases of reproductive cycle in both male and female fish. Similar changes in nuclear diameter of CS cells were also observed after 17alpha-methyltestosterone administration in males and 17 β-estradiol administrations in females. A positive correlation was observed between plasma STC levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the sex steroids in both sexes, suggesting that STC has a role in the processes involved in gonadal development. In addition females showed remarkable changes in plasma calcium level during gonadal cycle while no such change for males were observed. In females the plasma calcium level estimated during different phases of reproductive cycle indicates positive correlation between plasma level of calcium and gonad growth. Thus hyperactivity of CS cells was noted in both male and female fishes during gonadal cycle along with the differences in the activity of STC as well. In female it may act as hypocalcemic factor and bring the level of calcium to normal which increases during preparatory and pre spawning phases to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis. However data of male fishes indicated that plasma STC concentration varied widely during gonadal cycle but showed no consistent relationship to plasma calcium level.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Molecular characterization of estrogen receptors 1, 2a, and 2b and their tissue and ontogenic expression profiles in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

          There are two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in fish, Esr1 and Esr2 (formerly ERalpha and ERbeta), and in some species the Esr2 subtype has two forms, Esr2b (formerly ERbeta1) and Esr2a (formerly ERbeta2 or ERgamma). There is little information, however, on the different characteristics and functional significance of the two receptor subtypes in fish, and this is especially relevant for understanding the disruption of ER signaling by chemicals with estrogenic activity. In this study, the full-length cDNAs for esr1 (3167 base pairs [bp]) and esr2b (2318 bp), and a partial-length (267 bp) cDNA for esr2a, were cloned and characterized in fathead minnow (fhm; Pimephales promelas), and their patterns of expression established during development and in adults. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed some clear distinctions in the ontogenic and tissue expression of fhm esr1, esr2b, and esr2a, suggesting different functions for each ER subtype. Fhm ERs were expressed in brain, pituitary, liver, gonad, intestine, and gill of male and female fish, esr2b and esr2a were also expressed in muscle. Fhm esr1 and esr2b were expressed predominantly in the liver, whereas fhm esr2a was expressed predominantly in intestine and was lowest expressed in liver. Responses of the different hepatic ERs in male fathead minnow exposed to 100 ng estradiol/L differed, with a significant induction (5-fold) of fhm esr1 but no effect on esr2b or esr2a expression, suggesting different mechanisms of regulation for the different ERs. The detailed characterization of ERs in fathead minnow provides the foundation for understanding the molecular basis of estrogenic disruption in fish.
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            Calcium balance in sea bream (Sparus aurata): the effect of oestradiol-17beta.

            In all teleost fishes vitellogenesis is triggered and maintained by oestradiol-17beta (E2) and is accompanied by an increase of blood plasma calcium and phosphate. The action of this hormone on calcium metabolism was investigated by treating fast-growing immature juvenile sea bream (Sparus aurata) with coconut butter implants alone (control) or implants containing 10 microg/g E2. Treatment with E2 induced the production of circulating vitellogenin, a 2.5-fold increase in plasma ionic Ca2+ and a 10-fold increase in plasma total calcium, largely bound to protein. In contrast to freshwater species, which obtain most of their calcium from the environment directly through the gills, the intestinal component of calcium uptake of the salt water-living sea bream represented up to 60-70% of the total uptake. The whole body calcium uptake, expressed as the sum of calcium obtained via intestinal and extra-intestinal (likely branchial) routes increased significantly in response to E2. Combined influx and unchanged efflux rates resulted in a significant 31% increase in net calcium uptake. There was no evidence for an effect of E2 on the calcium and phosphate content of the scales or the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (an index for bone/scale osteoclast activity). While most freshwater fish appear to rely on internal stores of calcium, i.e. bone and/or scales to increase calcium availability, the marine sea bream accommodates calcium-transporting mechanisms to obtain calcium from the environment and preserve internal stores. These observations suggest that a fundamental difference may exist in the E2-dependent calcium regulation between freshwater and marine teleosts.
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              Stanniocalcin in the seawater salmon: structure, function, and regulation.

              Stanniocalcin (STC) is a homodimeric glycoprotein hormone that was first discovered in fish, where it is produced by unique endocrine glands known as the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). In freshwater salmon, STC plays an integral role in Ca2+ and phosphate homeostasis. High levels of extracellular Ca2+ promote the synthesis and release of STC, which on entering the bloodstream reduces the levels of gill and gut Ca2+ transport and renal phosphate excretion to restore normocalcemia. In this report, we have examined STC in seawater salmon. We have studied the distribution of STC protein and mRNA in marine Atlantic salmon CS cells, the responsiveness of these cells to Ca2+, and some physical properties of the hormone. Our results demonstrated that all Atlantic salmon CS cells expressed the STC gene. Furthermore, these cells exhibited a Ca2+ sensitivity that was remarkably similar to those in freshwater salmon in terms of its ability to stimulate STC secretion and gene expression. When Atlantic salmon glands were fractionated by concanavalin A (ConA)-Sepharose chromatography, two distinct forms of the hormone were identified, both of which were recognized by sockeye salmon STC antiserum, and designated as STC1 and STC2. STC1 was a glycosylated, 42-kDa disulfide-linked dimer, with a high affinity for ConA. STC2 did not bind to ConA, was 44 kDa in size, and had a different subunit structure. STC2 was also a less effective inhibitor of gill Ca2+ transport in fish. Collectively, the results suggest that there is a second form of STC in salmon.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                8 July 2014
                : 9
                : 7
                Co-operative College, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
                CNRS, France
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: AA SKV. Performed the experiments: SKV. Analyzed the data: AA SKV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SKV. Wrote the paper: SKV.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                The authors have no support or funding to report.
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Endocrine Physiology
                Reproductive Physiology



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