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Differential Effects of Migration and Deportation on HIV Infection among Male and Female Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico

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      HIV prevalence is rising, especially among high risk females in Tijuana, Baja California, a Mexico-US border city situated on major migration and drug trafficking routes. We compared factors associated with HIV infection among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana in an effort to inform HIV prevention and treatment programs. IDUs aged ≥18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and underwent testing for HIV, syphilis and structured interviews. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection, stratified by gender. Among 1056 IDUs, most were Mexican-born but 67% were born outside Tijuana. Reasons for moving to Tijuana included deportation from the US (56% for males, 29% for females), and looking for work/better life (34% for females, 15% for males). HIV prevalence was higher in females versus males (10.2% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001). Among females (N = 158), factors independently associated with higher HIV prevalence included younger age, lifetime syphilis infection and living in Tijuana for longer durations. Among males (N = 898), factors independently associated with higher HIV prevalence were syphilis titers consistent with active infection, being arrested for having ‘track-marks’, having larger numbers of recent injection partners and living in Tijuana for shorter durations. An interaction between gender and number of years lived in Tijuana regressed on HIV infection was significant (p = 0.03). Upon further analysis, deportation from the U.S. explained the association between shorter duration lived in Tijuana and HIV infection among males; odds of HIV infection were four-fold higher among male injectors deported from the US, compared to other males, adjusting for all other significant correlates (p = 0.002). Geographic mobility has a profound influence on Tijuana's evolving HIV epidemic, and its impact is significantly modified by gender. Future studies are needed to elucidate the context of mobility and HIV acquisition in this region, and whether US immigration policies adversely affect HIV risk.

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      Most cited references 60

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      Respondent-Driven Sampling: A New Approach to the Study of Hidden Populations

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        From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection.

        To review the scientific data on the role of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in sexual transmission of HIV infection and discuss the implications of these findings for HIV and STD prevention policy and practice. Articles were selected from a review of Medline, accessed with the OVID search engine. The search covered articles from January 1987 to September 1998 and yielded 2101 articles. Methods used to uncover articles which might have been missed included searching for related articles by author, and combing literature reviews. In addition, all abstracts under the category "sexually transmitted diseases" from the XI and XII International Conferences on AIDS (Vancouver 1996 and Geneva 1998) and other relevant scientific meetings were reviewed. Efforts were made to locate journal articles which resulted from the research reported in the identified abstracts. All original journal articles and abstracts which met one of the following criteria were included: (1) studies of the biological plausibility or mechanism of facilitation of HIV infectiousness or susceptibility by STDs, (2) prospective cohort studies (longitudinal or nested case-control) which estimate the risk of HIV infection associated with specific STDs or STD syndromes, or (3) intervention studies which quantitate the effect which STD treatment can have on HIV incidence. Strong evidence indicates that both ulcerative and non-ulcerative STDs promote HIV transmission by augmenting HIV infectiousness and HIV susceptibility via a variety of biological mechanisms. These effects are reflected in the risk estimates found in numerous prospective studies from four continents which range from 2.0 to 23.5, with most clustering between 2 and 5. The relative importance of ulcerative and non-ulcerative STDs appears to be complex. Owing to the greater frequency of non-ulcerative STDs in many populations, these infections may be responsible for more HIV transmission than genital ulcers. However, the limited reciprocal impact of HIV infection on non-ulcerative STDs and the evidence that non-ulcerative STDs may increase risk primarily for the receptive partner (rather than bidirectionally) may modulate the impact of these diseases. The results of two community level randomised, controlled intervention trials conducted in Africa suggest that timely provision of STD services can substantially reduce HIV incidence, but raise additional questions about the optimal way to target and implement these services to achieve the greatest effect on HIV transmission. Available data leave little doubt that other STDs facilitate HIV transmission through direct, biological mechanisms and that early STD treatment should be part of a high quality, comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. Policy makers, HIV prevention programme managers, and providers should focus initial implementation efforts on three key areas: (i) improving access to and quality of STD clinical services; (ii) promoting early and effective STD related healthcare behaviours; and (iii) establishing surveillance systems to monitor STD and HIV trends and their interrelations.
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          Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis.

          Many new HIV-1 infections in the USA occur in injection drug users (IDUs). HIV-1seroconversion of IDUs is mainly associated with injection-related risk factors. Harm- reduction programmes concentrate on injection-risk behaviour. We aimed to establish whether injection or sexual risk factors, or both, were associated with HIV-1antibody seroconversion of street-recruited IDUs in San Francisco, from 1986 to 1998. IDUs were enrolled every 6 months from four community sites. We did a nested case-control study comparing 58 respondents who seroconverted between visits with 1134 controls who remained seronegative. Controls were matched with cases by sex and date. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated for men and women by use of conditional logistic regression. Men who had sex with men were 8.8 times as likely to seroconvert (95% CI 3.7-20.5) as heterosexual men. Women who reported having traded sex for money in the past year were 5.1 times as likely as others to seroconvert (95% CI 1.9-13.7). Women younger than 40 years were more likely to seroconvert than those 40 years or older (2.8 [1.05-7.6]), and women who reported having a steady sex-partner who injected drugs were less likely to seroconvert than other women (0.32 [0.11-0.92]). HIV-1 seroconversion of street-recruited IDUs in San Francisco is strongly associated with sexual behaviour. HIV-1risk might be reduced by incorporation of innovative sexual-risk-reduction strategies into harm-reduction programmes.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
            [2 ]Patronado Pro-COMUSIDA A.C., Tijuana, Mexico
            [3 ]Department of Political Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
            [4 ]Centro Nacional para la Prevención y el Control del VIH/SIDA, Mexico City, Mexico
            [5 ]Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
            Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, FIOCRUZ, Brazil
            Author notes

            Conceived and designed the experiments: SS RL TLP. Performed the experiments: RL AV. Analyzed the data: VO KCB LN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RP WC CMR TLP. Wrote the paper: SS VO WC LN.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            30 July 2008
            : 3
            : 7
            Strathdee et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
            Pages: 9
            Research Article
            Infectious Diseases
            Public Health and Epidemiology
            Public Health and Epidemiology/Global Health



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