26 June 2019
power markets, pricing, power generation control, battery management systems, power grids, energy storage, power transmission reliability, battery storage plants, frequency response, secondary cells, power generation economics, grid-tied battery energy storage system, frequency response services, battery energy storage systems, smooth power fluctuations, voltage, power feeder, National Grid Electricity Transmission, primary electricity transmission network operator, real-time response, deviations, grid frequency, charge/discharge power output, requisite service specifications, historical UK electricity prices, balancing service scheduling approach, energy arbitrage revenue, balancing services, nondynamic firm frequency response, enhanced frequency response, service availability payments, yearly arbitrage revenue, grid-tied 2 MW/1 MWh BESS, power 2.0 MW, energy 1.0 MWh
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are widely used to smooth power fluctuations and maintain the voltage and frequency of the power feeder at a desired level. The National Grid Electricity Transmission (NGET), the primary electricity transmission network operator in the UK, has introduced various frequency response services that are designed to provide a real-time response to deviations in the grid frequency. In this study, a control algorithm is developed which generates a charge/discharge power output with respect to deviations in the grid frequency and the requisite service specifications. Using historical UK electricity prices, a new balancing service scheduling approach has also been developed to maximise energy arbitrage revenue by layering different types of balancing services throughout the day. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm delivers both dynamic and non-dynamic firm frequency response and also an enhanced frequency response to NGET specifications while generating arbitrage revenue as well as service availability payments in the balancing market. A comparative study is also presented to compare the yearly arbitrage revenue obtained from the work presented in this study and a previous reference study. Finally,, experimental results of a grid-tied 2 MW/1 MWh BESS have been used for verification purposes.