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      Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Renal Injury: Mechanisms and Implications

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          Abstract

          Most of the basic components of the metabolic syndrome, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, apart from being major risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been also associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. However, several epidemiologic studies conducted over the past years suggest that the central component of the syndrome, insulin resistance, as well as compensatory hyperinsulinemia are independently associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease. In addition, background studies support the existence of several pathways linking insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with kidney damage. Insulin per se promotes the proliferation of renal cells and stimulates the production of other important growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and transforming growth factor beta. Insulin also upregulates the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor in mesangial cells, thus enhancing the deleterious effects of angiotensin II in the kidney, and stimulates production and renal action of endothelin-1. Moreover, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide and increased oxidative stress which have been also implicated in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. This review analyzes the above and other potential mechanisms, through which insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can contribute to renal injury.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease.

           G M Reaven (1988)
          Resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is present in the majority of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in approximately 25% of nonobese individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance. In these conditions, deterioration of glucose tolerance can only be prevented if the beta-cell is able to increase its insulin secretory response and maintain a state of chronic hyperinsulinemia. When this goal cannot be achieved, gross decompensation of glucose homeostasis occurs. The relationship between insulin resistance, plasma insulin level, and glucose intolerance is mediated to a significant degree by changes in ambient plasma free-fatty acid (FFA) concentration. Patients with NIDDM are also resistant to insulin suppression of plasma FFA concentration, but plasma FFA concentrations can be reduced by relatively small increments in insulin concentration. Consequently, elevations of circulating plasma FFA concentration can be prevented if large amounts of insulin can be secreted. If hyperinsulinemia cannot be maintained, plasma FFA concentration will not be suppressed normally, and the resulting increase in plasma FFA concentration will lead to increased hepatic glucose production. Because these events take place in individuals who are quite resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, it is apparent that even small increases in hepatic glucose production are likely to lead to significant fasting hyperglycemia under these conditions. Although hyperinsulinemia may prevent frank decompensation of glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant individuals, this compensatory response of the endocrine pancreas is not without its price. Patients with hypertension, treated or untreated, are insulin resistant, hyperglycemic, and hyperinsulinemic. In addition, a direct relationship between plasma insulin concentration and blood pressure has been noted. Hypertension can also be produced in normal rats when they are fed a fructose-enriched diet, an intervention that also leads to the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The development of hypertension in normal rats by an experimental manipulation known to induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia provides further support for the view that the relationship between the three variables may be a causal one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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            Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Implications for the syndrome of insulin resistance.

            To test the hypothesis that obesity/insulin resistance impairs both endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin-mediated augmentation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of methacholine chloride (MCh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) during saline infusion and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia in lean insulin-sensitive controls (C), in obese insulin-resistant subjects (OB), and in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). MCh induced increments in LBF were approximately 40% and 55% lower in OB and NIDDM, respectively, as compared with C (P < 0.05). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia augmented the LBF response to MCh by - 50% in C (P < 0.05 vs saline) but not in OB and NIDDM. SNP caused comparable increments in LBF in all groups. Regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between the maximal LBF change in response to MCh and body fat content. Thus, obesity/insulin resistance is associated with (a) blunted endothelium-dependent, but normal endothelium-independent vasodilation and (b) failure of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia to augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Therefore, obese/insulin-resistant subjects are characterized by endothelial dysfunction and endothelial resistance to insulin's effect on enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This endothelial dysfunction could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerosis in obese insulin-resistant subjects.
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              Enhanced expression of PAI-1 in visceral fat: possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity.

              The presence of obesity increases the risk of thrombotic vascular diseases. The role of fat accumulation and its effect on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels was investigated in humans and animals. Plasma PAI-1 levels were closely correlated with visceral fat area but not with subcutaneous fat area in human subjects. PAI-1 mRNA was detected in both types of fat tissue in obese rats but increased only in visceral fat during the development of obesity. These data suggest that an enhanced expression of the PAI-1 gene in visceral fat may increase plasma levels and may have a role in the development of vascular disease in visceral obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 232-244
                Affiliations
                aHypertension/Clinical Research Center, Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill., USA; bHypertension Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain
                Article
                93632 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:232–244
                10.1159/000093632
                16733348
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 149, Pages: 13
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93632
                Categories
                In-Depth Topic Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Insulin resistance, Kidney, Hyperinsulinemia, Renal injury, Insulin

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