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      The eyelash follicle features and anomalies: A review Translated title: Características y anomalías del folículo de la pestaña: revisión

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          Abstract

          The primary role of eyelashes is to protect and maintain the health of the lid margin. However, the mechanisms to fulfill this role are not fully understood. Unraveling these mechanisms will stand to greatly improve the efficiency of eye care professionals’ interventions in anomalies of the eyelashes. The aim of this article is to provide a review on eyelashes including highlights and new avenues for research; the biology of both the lash and its follicle; the pathophysiology and management of lash anomalies by eye care professionals; and the effect of iatrogenic factors on lashes. Using the database of Ovid MEDLINE, we reviewed studies specifically directed on human/mammalian eyelashes and key articles on current trends in scalp hair methodologies that can be applicable to lash research. The eyelash morphology, pigmentation and growth rate have been documented using techniques ranging from lash imaging to follicle immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the lash follicle is sensitive to many factors of the external environment, a variety of systemic/topical medications and cosmetics. Recently, aerodynamic studies using a mammalian eye model confirmed that an optimal lash length was needed so that eyelashes serve a protective role in reducing the number of particles that can reach the eye. Despite recent advances in lash research, studies are still scarce, due to the limited availability of the human lid for sampling. This review brings awareness that further research is needed with respect to eyelashes and will hopefully reduce the gap with scalp hair research.

          Resumen

          La función principal de las pestañas es proteger y mantener la salud del margen palpebral. Sin embargo, los mecanismos de desempeño de esta función no se comprenden plenamente. Desentrañar estos mecanismos ayudará a mejorar la eficiencia de las intervenciones de los profesionales de cuidados oculares en cuanto a las anomalías de las pestañas. El objetivo de este artículo es aportar una revisión sobre las pestañas, incluyendo los aspectos más destacados y las nuevas aportaciones para la investigación, la biología de la pestaña y su folículo, la patofisiología y tratamiento de las anomalías de las pestañas por parte de los profesionales de cuidados oculares, y el efecto de los factores iatrogénicos sobre las pestañas. Utilizando la base de datos de Ovid MEDLINE, revisamos los estudios específicamente dirigidos a las pestañas humanas/de mamíferos, así como los artículos clave sobre las tendencias actuales en cuanto a las metodologías del cuero cabelludo, que pueden aplicarse a la investigación sobre las pestañas. Se han documentado la morfología de las pestañas, así como su pigmentación y tasa de crecimiento, utilizando técnicas que oscilan entre la imagen de las pestañas y la inmunohistoquímica del folículo. Además, los estudios han demostrado que el folículo de la pestaña es sensible a diversos factores del entorno externo, diversas medicaciones sistémicas/tópicas y cosméticos. Recientemente, los estudios aerodinámicos que han utilizando un modelo de ojo de mamífero, han confirmado que se precisaba una longitud de pestañas óptima para que éstas ejercieran su función protectora a la hora de reducir el número de partículas que pueden acceder al ojo. A pesar de los avances recientes de la investigación sobre las pestañas, los estudios son aún escasos, debido a la disponibilidad limitada de párpado humano para muestreo. Esta revisión sirve de concienciación acerca de la necesidad de investigación futura con respecto a las pestañas, que reducirá presumiblemente la brecha existente con respecto a la investigación sobre el cuero cabelludo.

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          TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report

          The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.
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            Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome.

            The Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with poliosis, vitiligo, alopecia, and central nervous system and auditory signs. These manifestations are variable and race dependent. This inflammatory syndrome is probably the result of an autoimmune mechanism, influenced by genetic factors, and appears to be directed against melanocytes. On histopathologic examination typical cases show nonnecrotizing diffuse granulomatous panuveitis with initial sparing and late involvement of the choriocapillaris and formation of Dalen-Fuchs' nodules. Fluorescein angiography, lumbar puncture, and echography are useful adjuncts in the diagnosis and management of VKH syndrome. Patients with this syndrome are treated generally with high dose systemic corticosteroids or, when necessary, with cyclosporine or cytotoxic agents. The prognosis of patients with VKH syndrome is fair, with nearly 60% of patients retaining vision of 20/30 or better. The complications of VKH syndrome that lead to visual loss include cataracts in about 25% of patients, glaucoma in 33%, and subretinal neovascular membranes (SRNVMs) in about 10%; the latter, however, are an important cause of late visual loss. These complications usually require medical and/or surgical intervention, including photocoagulation. The major risk factor for the development of cataracts, SRNVMs, and, to some extent, glaucoma, is chronic recurrent intraocular inflammation that may be resistant to corticosteroid therapy. It appears that initial treatment with high dose corticosteroids, combined with prolonged corticosteroid therapy at appropriate dosage, may minimize these complications and may improve visual prognosis.
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              Cutaneous side-effects of kinase inhibitors and blocking antibodies.

              Although kinase inhibitors raise hope for people with cancer, patients and their clinicians are commonly confronted with the cutaneous side-effects that are associated with the use of these drugs. This review is the result of collaborations between dermatologists, medical oncologists, and pathologists, and discusses the cutaneous side-effects seen after treatment with the inhibitors of epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR), imatinib, sorafenib, and sunitinib. Some of the side-effects caused by these agents are very distressing, partly because they are chronic owing to the long duration of treatment. Therefore, patients need early and appropriate dermatological management. Moreover, several studies have reported a link between the antitumour efficacy of EGFR inhibitors and cutaneous side-effects. Elucidation of this connection could lead to the identification of crucial predictive factors for tumour response.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Optom
                J Optom
                Journal of Optometry
                Elsevier
                1888-4296
                1989-1342
                17 July 2018
                Oct-Dec 2018
                17 July 2018
                : 11
                : 4
                : 211-222
                Affiliations
                École d’optométrie, Université de Montréal, 3744 Rue Jean-Brillant, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1P1
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: École d’optométrie, Université de Montréal, 3744 Rue Jean-Brillant, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1P1. sarah.aumond@ 123456umontreal.ca
                Article
                S1888-4296(18)30048-7
                10.1016/j.optom.2018.05.003
                6147748
                30017866
                © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review article

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