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      Therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticles and routes of administration

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          Abstract

          In modern-day medicine, nanotechnology and nanoparticles are some of the indispensable tools in disease monitoring and therapy. The term “nanomaterials” describes materials with nanoscale dimensions (< 100 nm) and are broadly classified into natural and synthetic nanomaterials. However, “engineered” nanomaterials have received significant attention due to their versatility. Although enormous strides have been made in research and development in the field of nanotechnology, it is often confusing for beginners to make an informed choice regarding the nanocarrier system and its potential applications. Hence, in this review, we have endeavored to briefly explain the most commonly used nanomaterials, their core properties and how surface functionalization would facilitate competent delivery of drugs or therapeutic molecules. Similarly, the suitability of carbon-based nanomaterials like CNT and QD has been discussed for targeted drug delivery and siRNA therapy. One of the biggest challenges in the formulation of drug delivery systems is fulfilling targeted/specific drug delivery, controlling drug release and preventing opsonization. Thus, a different mechanism of drug targeting, the role of suitable drug-laden nanocarrier fabrication and methods to augment drug solubility and bioavailability are discussed. Additionally, different routes of nanocarrier administration are discussed to provide greater understanding of the biological and other barriers and their impact on drug transport. The overall aim of this article is to facilitate straightforward perception of nanocarrier design, routes of various nanoparticle administration and the challenges associated with each drug delivery method.

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          Most cited references 205

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          Transdermal drug delivery.

          Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin's barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase its impact on medicine.
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            Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery.

            Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the "nanometer" size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., "nanoparticles", take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad((c)) nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.
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              Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer.

              ABI-007, the first biologically interactive albumin-bound paclitaxel in a nanameter particle, free of solvents, was compared with polyethylated castor oil-based standard paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This phase III study was performed to confirm preclinical studies demonstrating superior efficacy and reduced toxicity of ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel. Patients were randomly assigned to 3-week cycles of either ABI-007 260 mg/m(2) intravenously without premedication (n = 229) or standard paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) intravenously with premedication (n = 225). ABI-007 demonstrated significantly higher response rates compared with standard paclitaxel (33% v 19%, respectively; P = .001) and significantly longer time to tumor progression (23.0 v 16.9 weeks, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.75; P = .006). The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia was significantly lower for ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel (9% v 22%, respectively; P < .001) despite a 49% higher paclitaxel dose. Febrile neutropenia was uncommon (< 2%), and the incidence did not differ between the two study arms. Grade 3 sensory neuropathy was more common in the ABI-007 arm than in the standard paclitaxel arm (10% v 2%, respectively; P < .001) but was easily managed and improved rapidly (median, 22 days). No hypersensitivity reactions occurred with ABI-007 despite the absence of premedication and shorter administration time. ABI-007 demonstrated greater efficacy and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel in this patient population. The improved therapeutic index and elimination of corticosteroid premedication required for solvent-based taxanes make the novel albumin-bound paclitaxel ABI-007 an important advance in the treatment of MBC.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                dhrisya.npy@gmail.com
                +91-7358595171 , sadhaon@gmail.com , sadhaofficial@buc.edu.in
                sankarbio30@gmail.com
                kswamibiotech@gmail.com
                drmdessa@gmail.com
                double@nhri.org.tw
                wqoronfleh@qf.org.qa
                Journal
                Biomater Res
                Biomater Res
                Biomaterials Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1226-4601
                2055-7124
                21 November 2019
                21 November 2019
                2019
                : 23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8735 2850, GRID grid.411677.2, Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Bioprocess and Biomaterials Laboratory, , Bharathiar University, ; Coimbatore, India
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8735 2850, GRID grid.411677.2, Department of Extension and Career Guidance, , Bharathiar University, ; Coimbatore, India
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0726 9430, GRID grid.412846.d, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, , Sultan Qaboos University, ; Muscat, Oman
                [4 ]Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, NationalHealth Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0516 2170, GRID grid.418818.c, Research and Policy Department, , World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, ; P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar
                Article
                166
                10.1186/s40824-019-0166-x
                6869321
                58840047-b8a0-4a85-a572-f9a6c18c5935
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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